Findings


1 Remarks

1.1 General remarks

  • Unpredictable influence:
    • WILD: might spawn in the wild and affect biodiversity so measures should be taken against escapes, e.g. screens before in- and outlets of ponds, specially designed cages: various areas, India (introduced) [1].
  • Competition: no data found yet.
  • Disease transmission:
    • WILD: monogenoid Thaparocleidus caecus (non-native to European waters) found on hybrid specimen probably discarded from private aquarium into pond in Szczecin, Poland. Small risk of introducing exotic parasites, because closely host specific [2].
  • Interbreeding:
    • WILD: spawning period overlaps with native P. pangasianodon: various areas, India (introduced) [1].
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1.2 Other remarks

No data found yet.


2 Ethograms

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3 Distribution

  • Observations: Mekong river, Laos [18] and Cambodia [3] [5] [18] (possibly one population in upper Mekong to Myanmar/China [6], but rarely above Khone falls [4]) and Vietnam [3] [6] [18].
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  • Observations inland waters: Andra Pradesh, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, India [1], Gajah Mungkur reservoir, Java [7], Ibn Najim marsh, Shatt Al-Basrah canal, Iraq [19], India [20], lake Kinneret, Israel [21], Madampa lake, Sri Lanka [22], Muvattupuzha river, Kerala, India [23], Singapore [24].
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4 Natural co-existence

  • Observations various Pangasius species WILD: Basa Pangasius bocourti, Pangasius conchophilus, Shortbarbel pangasius Pangasius micronemus, Pangasius macronemus: Mekong river, Cambodia [3].
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5 Substrate and/or shelter

5.1 Substrate

  • Plants:
    • For substrate and spawning  [F1].
  • Rocks and stones:
    • For substrate and spawning  [F1].
  • Sand and mud: no data found yet.
  • Other substrate: no data found yet.
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5.2 Shelter or cover

No data found yet.


6 Food, foraging, hunting, feeding

6.1 Trophic level and general considerations on food needs

  • Observations: 3.1±0.5 se [25].
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  • Omnivorous [F2]. The fishery that provides fish meal and fish oil has two major impacts:
    1. It contributes considerably to overfishing, as it accounts for 1/4 [26] or even 1/3 [27] of the world catch volume.
    2. It challenges animal welfare, because in the face of 450-1,000 MILLIARD wild fishes caught worldwide each year to be processed into fish meal or fish oil [28], the individual fish gets overlooked and, thus, suffering increases at rearing, live marketing, and slaughtering levels [29].
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6.2 Food items

  • Food items: omnivorous:
    • Observations WILD: crustaceans, fish, fruits, debris, forest vegetation: Mekong river, Lao PDR/Thailand/Cambodia/Vietnam [6].
    • For cannibalism  [F3].
  • Food items and habitat: no data found yet.
  • Food items and life stages: no data found yet.
  • Food preference: no data found yet.
  • Food partitioning: no data found yet.
  • Prey density:
    • LAB: 1.5 day-old FRY in 30 L tanks at density 10, 30, or 90 IND/L and feeding level 1, 3, or 9 prey/IND of Artemia nauplii (i.e., equal prey density in 10 IND/L with feeding level 3, referred to as 10:3, and 30 IND/L with feeding level 1, referred to as 30:1). After 6.5 days, tendency of increasing survival with increasing feeding level with highest survival of 60.5% under 10:9 and lowest of 20-23% under 10:1, 30:1, and 90:1. Increasing growth with increasing feeding level with highest TOTAL LENGTH of 17-17.6 mm at 10:9, 30:9, and 90:9 and lowest TOTAL LENGTH of 12.5-14 mm at 10:1, 30:1, and 90:1. Increasing amount of gut content and decreasing food conversion efficiency with increasing feeding level. Calculations reveal underfeeding at 1 prey/IND and just maximum feeding at 3 prey/IND. Results indicate shorter foraging time and thus less energy loss with higher prey density in FRY with minimum swimming abilities. Results indicate best settings for highest survival, growth, and feed conversion efficiency at 90:3 [32].
    • Prey size selectivity: no data found yet.
    • Particle size:
      • LAB: JUVENILES (Striped catfish) in 170 L tanks at density 20 IND/tank were fed fine (78.6% of <0.3 mm, 20.4% of 0.3-0.5 mm, 1% of >0.5 mm) or coarse feed (68.7% of <0.3 mm, 27.1% of 0.3-0.5 mm, 4.2% of >0.5 mm) containing either 0, 3, or 6 g/kg guar gum. During 52 days, interaction between size of feed and inclusion of guar gum with higher weight (127-131 g versus 118-128 g) and higher weight gain (0.9-1 g/d versus 0.7-0.9 g/d), lower FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.8-2.1 versus 1.8-2.2) with fine than coarse feed and at 0 then 6 g/kg guar gum [33].
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  • LAB: JUVENILES (Striped catfish) in 500 L tanks were injected with either lipopolysaccharide (3 mg/kg body weight), levamisole (5 mg/kg body weight), or phosphate saline buffer (control condition) on day 0 and day 14. Higher lysozyme activity in both groups compared to control (ca 80 U/mL versus 40 U/mL). Higher immunoglobulin levels in levamisole group compared to lipopolysaccharide group and control (ca 11 mg/mL versus 9-10 mg/mL). After 21 days, challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri and either treated with antibiotic or not. After additional 14 days, higher lysozyme activity in groups treated with lipopolysaccharide and levamisole compared to control and compared to before challenge (140-150 U/mL versus 40-90 U/mL). Highest immunoglobulin levels in group treated with levamisole compared to control and compared to before challenge (ca 13 mg/mL versus 9-11 mg/mL), lipopolysaccharide group in between (ca 12 mg/mL). Lowest mortality in group treated with levamisole compared to control (ca 25-30% versus 35-60%), lipopolysaccharide group in between (ca 30-40%). Mortality of group treated with levamisole or lipopolysaccharide without antibiotic similar to mortality of control group treated with antibiotic (31.1% and 37.8% versus 35.5%). Results indicate positive effect of levamisole and lipopolysaccharide on immune parameters that could possibly equal antibiotic levels [35].
  • LAB: JUVENILES in 500 L tanks at density 50 IND/tank were fed on diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 g beta-glucans per kilo feed. After 30 days, higher red blood cell count (2.7x106 cells/mm3 versus 2.3-2.4x106 cells/mm3), higher white blood cell count (119x103 cells/mm3 versus 78.5-98.0x103 cells/m3), higher haemoglobin (10.4 g/100 mL versus 7.0-8.8 g/100 mL), higher total immunoglobulins (16.1 mg/mL versus 10-13.8 mg/mL), lower cortisol (36.2 ng/mL versus 45.5-49.0 ng/mL), lower glucose (60.5 mg/100 mL versus 67.9-70.9 mg/100 mL) under 1.0 g/kg feed compared to other groups.
    Second experiment: JUVENILES in 500 L tanks at density 60 IND/m3 were fed 1.0 g beta-glucans per kilo feed for one, two, or three weeks. No difference in cortisol levels (ca 40 ng/mL), lower glucose level in JUVENILES fed for three weeks compared to other groups (ca 54 mg/100 mL versus 60-62 mg/100 mL). Afterwards crowding stress (3,000 IND/m3) for four hours. Increase in cortisol and glucose in all conditions, lower for JUVENILES fed for three weeks compared to one week or until 72 h after stress. Higher total immunoglobulins in JUVENILES fed for three weeks compared to other conditions at first observation time directly after stress. Higher survival rates in JUVENILES fed for two and three weeks compared to one week (>98% versus 93.3%) [36].
  • LAB: JUVENILES (Striped catfish) in 150 L tubs (80 x 57 x 42 cm) at density 12 IND/tub were fed with diets containing either 150 mg/kg feed or 300 mg/kg feed of astaxanthin (AX), beta-carotene (BC), or canthaxanthin (CX). After 45 days, combining results from different tests, tendency of best effect with 300 mg/kg astaxanthin: one of highest total carotenoids levels in muscle and lysozyme activity levels and red blood cell counts, one of lowest levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, highest ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, second highest total haemoglobin levels (after 150 mg/kg astaxanthin) [37].
  • LAB: JUVENILES (Striped catfish) in fibreglass tanks (120 x 75 x 35 cm) at 15 IND/tank were fed diet containing 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, or 0.8% mannan oligosaccharide. After 12 weeks, challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila. After two weeks, higher red blood cell count (3.9-4 x 106/mm3 versus 3.2 x 106/mm3) and higher white blood cell count (5.5-6 x 106/mm3 versus 4.4 x 106/mm3) in all groups compared to control. Lower lymphocyte count (70-70.2% versus 71.8%) and higher granulocyte count (26.2-26.7% versus 24.3%) in JUVENILES fed 0.4-0.8% compared to control, 0.2% in between (lymphocyte: 70.2%, granulocyte: 26.2%). Higher immunoglobulin content (24 mg/mL versus 17.2 mg/mL) and lysozyme activity (29.6 µg/mL versus 7.4 µg/mL) in JUVENILES fed 0.6% compared to control.
    After three weeks, higher survival in JUVENILES fed 0.6% and 0.8% compared to control and 0.2% (90% versus 73.3%), 0.4% in between (80%). Lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate in JUVENILES fed 0.4%, 0.6%. 0.8% compared to control (1.3-1.8 mm/h versus 3 mm/h), 0.2% in between (2.1 mm/h). Higher red blood cell count in all groups compared to control (3.7-3.9 x 106/mm3 versus 3 x 106/mm3). Higher haemoglobin levels in JUVENILES fed 0.4% and 0.6% (14.9-15.2 gdL versus 11.5 gdL), 0.2 and 0.8% in between (13.4 gdL). No difference in white blood cell count, lymphocyte, monocyte, granulocyte levels, immunoglobulin and lysozyme content indicating the successful combat of the infection [38].
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6.3 Feeding behaviour

  • For foraging and...
    ...vision  [F4],
    ...olfaction  [F5].
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  • FARM: JUVENILES in 200 m2 ponds (1.6 m depth) with same number of Silver carp at density 25,000 IND/ha were fed either once a day (9 a.m.), twice (9 a.m., 5 p.m.), or three times a day (9 a.m., 1 p.m., 5 p.m.). After 135 days, no difference in survival (95.2-96.8%) [39].
  • LAB: FRY (Striped catfish) in 18 L bucket at 10 IND/L were fed rotifers Brachionus angularis of 90-100 µm length during three days and water fleas Moina sp. of 598 µm for seven days. Feeding frequency was either one time (at 7 a.m.), two (at 7 and 11 a.m.), four (at 7 and 11 a.m., 3 and 7 p.m.), or six times (at 7 and 10 a.m., 3, 7, and 11 p.m., 3 a.m.). Higher survival with six compared to lower feeding times (66% versus 9% at one time, 11% at two, 28% at four times) [15].
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  • FARM: JUVENILES in 200 m2 ponds (1.6 m depth) with same number of Silver carp at density 25,000 IND/ha were fed either once a day (9 a.m.), twice (9 a.m., 5 p.m.), or three times a day (9 a.m., 1 p.m., 5 p.m.). After 135 days, higher weight gain (3,816.5% versus 3,346.0% versus 2,652.0%), higher specific growth rate (2.7% versus 2.6% versus 2.5%), and lower FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (2.1 versus 2.2 versus 2.4) the more frequently fed [39].
  • LAB: FRY (Siamese catfish) were either fed once (at 08:00 h, 12:00 h, or 16:00 h) or three times a day either 45 g/kg/d or 90 g/kg/d. After four weeks, no difference in specific growth rate between feeding once and three times, but tendency of lower specific growth rate when fed at 08:00 h (1.2-1.3%/d versus 1.7-2.2%/d). With FOOD CONVERSION RATIO, at 45 g, no difference between feeding once or three times, but lower FOOD CONVERSION RATIO when fed at 16:00 h and when fed three times compared to fed 90 g. With 90 g, higher FOOD CONVERSION RATIO when fed at 08:00 h [40].
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  • Time of first feeding:
    • LAB: FRY (Striped catfish) in 18 L bucket at 10 IND/L were fed rotifers Brachionus angularis of 90-100 µm length during three days and water fleas Moina sp. of 598 µm for seven days. First feeding startet at 24 h, 30 h, 36 h, 42 h, or 48 h after hatching. Mouth gape at 231-236 µm at day 1, 450-505 µm at day 3, so water fleas could not be preyed upon. Higher survival in FRY first fed at 24 h compared to the other groups (27.8% versus 24%, 19%, 16%, 16%) including control FRY first fed at 36 h with water fleas [15].
  • Feeding time:
    • LAB: FRY (Siamese catfish) were either fed at 08:00 h, 12:00 h, or 16:00 h either 45 g/kg/d or 90 g/kg/d. After four weeks, no difference in specific growth rate when fed at 12:00 h or 16:00 h and either 45 g or 90 g (1.7-2.2%/d), but tendency of lower specific growth rate when fed at 08:00 h (1.2-1.3%/d). Tendency of lower FOOD CONVERSION RATIO with 45 g compared to 90 g regardless of the time fed (1.9-3.0 versus 3.3-5.6) with worst FOOD CONVERSION RATIO at 08:00 h and 90 g (5.6). Overall most promising result at 16:00 h and 45 g [40].
  • Light intensity:
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 1 L glass basins (18 cm diameter) at density 10 IND/basins in a dark room (<0.01 lux) were exposed to light intensities of 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 lux for 30 min. During 15 days, no differences in the number of Artemia eaten by the FRY under the various light intensities [17].
  • Tank background colour:
    • LAB: JUVENILES in 7 L plastic tanks at density 15 IND/tank and either green, black, or white background colour. After 20 days, no difference in daily feed intake (0.02-0.03 g/IND), but higher total feed intake (0.4 g/IND versus 0.3 g/IND) in white and green compared to black tanks and lower FOOD CONVERSION RATIO in white compared to black tanks (0.87 versus 1.1), green tanks in between (0.99) [9].
  • Feeding and temperature:
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Thai pangas) in 100 L glass aquaria (75 x 45 x 45 cm) at 24 °C were gradually acclimated to 28 °C, 32, °C, or 36 °C at 1 °C/h. During 28 days, decreased appetite under 36 °C, but could also be due to reduced dissolved oxygen [41].
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7 Photoperiod

7.1 Daily rhythm

  • Daily rhythm: no data found yet.
  • Nocturnal activity:
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 5 L plastic aquaria at 10 IND/L under light intensities of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 lux for diurnal cycle (or in complete darkness). During 19 days, FRY were observed resting on the bottom during the day under light conditions, being more active at dim conditions probably indicating nocturnal behaviour [8].
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 1 L glass basins (18 cm diameter) at density 10 IND/basin in a dark room (<0.01 lux) were exposed to light intensities of 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 lux for 30 min. At 3 days old (ca 95% versus 40-90%) and at 5 days old (ca. 60% versus 30-50%), highest percentage of swimming individuals under 1 lux. At 12 days old, highest percentage in darkness (100% versus ca. 60-95%), at 15 days old, no difference between darkness, 0.1, and 10 lux (100%) [17].
  • Phototaxis: no data found yet.
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7.2 Light intensity

  • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 5 L plastic aquaria at density 10 IND/L, 20 IND/L, or 40 IND/L and either natural diel cycle (400-1,400 lux during the day) or in darkness (covered by plastic sheets). After 20 days, higher survival rate under 10 IND/L and darkness than under 10 IND/L and light (ca 0.4 versus 0.3). Decreasing survival and decreasing difference between darkness and light with increasing density (up to ca 0.15 survival rate under 40 IND/L) [42].
  • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 5 L plastic aquaria at 10 IND/L under light intensities of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 lux for diurnal cycle (or in complete darkness). After 19 days, higher survival rate under 0.1 lux than under 0, 10, or 100 lux (ca 0.6 versus 0.2), 1 lux in between (ca 0.5). Results indicate increasing cannibalism with increasing light intensity [8].
  • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 1 L glass basins (18 cm diameter) at density 10 IND/basin in a dark room (<0.01 lux) were exposed to light intensities of 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 lux for 30 min. At 3 and 5 days old, no aggression (i.e. collision with conspecifics) under <0.01 and 0.1 lux probably due to constant swimming, but tendency of increasing number of aggressive FRY with increasing light intensity (2-3 inividuals under 100 lux) probably due to resting on the bottom. Collisions with conspecifics on the bottom caused entangling of long barbels with sharp teeth and no chance of escape, resulting in death. No aggression at next observation times at 12 and 15 days old [17].
  • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 10 L acrylic aquaria at density 10 IND/L under light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), 1.4x10-1 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 10 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. After 5 days (at 7 days old), no difference in survival rates (11.1-14.7%), but tendency of higher survival under 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s possibly indicating cannibalism under higher light intensities [43].
  • LAB: JUVENILES (Sutchi catfish) in 30 L acrylic aquaria at density 20 IND/aquarium under light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. After 11 days, higher survival under 1.4 µmol/m2/s than 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (76.3% versus 46.7%), 1.4x10-3/m2/s in between (54%) [11].
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  • No effect:
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 5 L plastic aquaria at density 10 IND/L, 20 IND/L, or 40 IND/L and either natural diel cycle (400-1,400 lux during the day) or in darkness (covered by plastic sheets). After 20 days, no difference in body weight in the conditions (ca 21-30 mg) [42].
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 10 L acrylic aquaria at density 10 IND/L under light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), 1.4x10-1 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 10 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. After 5 days (at 7 days old), no difference in specific growth rate of length (18.3-19.4%/d) or weight (21-23.7%/d) [43].
  • Direct effect:
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 5 L plastic aquaria at 10 IND/L under light intensities of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 lux for diurnal cycle (or in complete darkness). After 19 days, higher weight under 100 lux than 0, 0.1, and 10 lux (ca 60 mg versus 45 mg) and than 1 lux (ca 35 mg) [8].
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Sutchi catfish) in 30 L acrylic aquaria at density 20 IND/aquarium under light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. After 11 days, no difference in final weights but higher specific growth rate under 1.4 µmol/m2/s than 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (3.4%/d versus 2.85%/d), 1.4x10-3/m2/s in between (2.9%/d) [11].
  • For light intensity and feeding  [F6].
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7.3 Light colour

  • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 10 L acrylic aquaria at density 10 IND/L under wavelengths of 446 and 566 nm (white), 454 nm (blue), 520 nm (green), 590 nm (yellow), 632 nm (red) and light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), 1.4x10-1 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 10 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. After 5 days (at 7 days old), no difference in survival rates (10.1-15.3%), but tendency of better survival under yellow and red light [43].
  • LAB: JUVENILES (Sutchi catfish) in 30 L acrylic aquaria at density 20 IND/aquarium under wavelengths of 446 and 566 nm (white), 454 nm (blue), 520 nm (green), 590 nm (yellow), 632 nm (red) and light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. After 11 days, no difference in survival rates (53.3-65.6%) [11].
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  • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 10 L acrylic aquaria at density 10 IND/L under wavelengths of 446 and 566 nm (white), 454 nm (blue), 520 nm (green), 590 nm (yellow), 632 nm (red) and light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), 1.4x10-1 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 10 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. After 5 days (at 7 days old), no difference in specific growth rate of length (18.1-19.9%/d), but tendency of higher specific growth rate under red light. Higher specific growth rate of weight under white than blue light (25.5%/d versus 19.9%/d), other light colours in between (21.2-23%/d) [43].
  • LAB: JUVENILES (Sutchi catfish) in 30 L acrylic aquaria at density 20 IND/aquarium under wavelengths of 446 and 566 nm (white), 454 nm (blue), 520 nm (green), 590 nm (yellow), 632 nm (red) and light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. After 11 days, no difference in final weights and specific growth rates (2.4-3.7%/d), but tendency of better growth under red light [11].
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8 Water parameters

8.1 Water temperature

  • Standard temperature range: 28-32 °C:
    • Observations WILD: 28-32 °C: Madampa lake, Sri Lanka (introduced) [22].
  • Temperature preference: no data found yet.
  • Migration temperature: no data found yet.
  • For temperature and spawning  [F1].
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  • Lower and upper lethal limits:
    • FARM: six day-old FRY in 25 L tanks (50 x 25 x 25 cm) at density 12 IND/L under <50 lux due to opaque cover, acclimated to 28 °C, and gradually exposed to either 23 °C, 25.5 °C, 28 °C, 30.5 °C, or 33 °C at rate of max. 1.5 °C/h. At day 10 after hatching, no difference in survival under 28 °C, 30.5 °C, and 33 °C (88.8-93.5%), but decreasing with decreasing temperature (64.7% at 25.5 °C, 9-37% at 23 °C). At 14 days after hatching, survival under 23 °C had decreased to 27.3% in one group and to 0% in another. Relative mortality mainly due to cannibalism in three higher temperature regimes, but absolutely higher under two lower temperatures. Rare incomplete cannibalism from 10 days after hatching on.
      Second experiment: 40 h-old FRY in 25 L tanks at density 16 IND/L, acclimated to 28 °C and gradually exposed to either 28 °C, 30.5 °C, or 33 °C. After four days, higher estimated survival under 33 °C than under 30.5 °C than under 28 °C (ca 94% versus 75-83% versus 50-67%) [14].
    • LAB: eggs and semen (Striped catfish) were mixed at 29 °C and transferred to 42 °C water bath for 2.5 min before cleavage at 28, 28.5, 29, 29.5, 30, or 30.5 min after fertilisation. Eggs were returned to 28-30 °C water. After 20-24 h, lower hatching rate in all conditions compared to control (4.1-8.9% versus 86.1%). Surviving LARVAE and FRY were reared in 200 x 100 x 40 cm tanks for seven days, transferred to 25 L plastic tanks at density 5 IND/L. After 30 days, no difference in survival rate in all conditions and compared to control (85.3-98.7%) [44].
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Tra catfish) in pre-test displayed 100% mortality at temperatures <21 °C and >39 °C [45].
  • Temperature change and stress:
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Striped catfish) in 1,000 L glass tanks with 27.6 °C were directly transferred to 150 L treatment tank with 15 °C water for 1 h, 12 h, or 24 h. No mortality after 1 h cold shock, but 50% after 12 h and 65% after 24 h. Higher cortisol levels in both cold treated and control group after 24 h cold shock compared to before treatment (ca 40 ng/mL versus 25 ng/mL), other cold treatments and control groups in between (ca 32-37 ng/mL). Higher glucose level after 1 h cold shock compared to control of 12 h and 24 h (ca 60 g/dL versus 50 g/dL), other cold treatments and control groups in between (ca 55 g/dL). Results indicate stress at least after 12 h cold shock despite missing clear endocrine response possibly due to alteration by low temperature [46].
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Tra catfish) in 500 L tanks at density 45 IND/tank and accustomed to 27 °C were gradually acclimated to 24 °C, 27 °C, 30 °C, 32 °C, 34 °C, or 36 °C at rate of 2 °C/d. After 56 days, lower survival under 24 °C than all other temperatures (70.4% versus 88.9-97.8%). Lower survival under 36 °C than under 27 °C (88.9% versus 97.8%), remaining temperatures in between (90.4-96.3%). Lower red blood cell count under 27 °C than all other temperatures except 36 °C (2.4x106 cells/mm3 versus 2.8-2.9x106 cells/mm3), highest under 30 °C and 34 °C (2.8-2.9x106 cells/mm3). Lower haemoglobin under 27 °C than all other temperatures (6.7 g/dL versus 7.5-8.5 g/dL), highest under 32 °C and 34 °C (8.2-8.5 g/dL). Lower haematocrit under 27 °C than under 30-34 °C (26.4% versus 29.2-32.2%); 24 °C and 36 °C in between (28.8-28.9%). Higher glucose levels under 34 °C and 36 °C than 24 °C and 27 °C on day 1 (ca 0.3 g/L versus 0.23 g/L), remaining temperatures in between (ca 0.25-0.28 g/L), no differences from day 7 on [45].
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Tra catfish) in 500 L tanks at density 50 IND/tank (150 IND/m3) accustomed to 25 °C and fresh water were gradually acclimated to 25 °C, 30 °C, or 35 °C and 0‰, 6‰, or 12‰ at rate of 2 °C/d and 2‰/d. After 56 days, no difference in survival in all groups, except lower survival under 35 °C and 0‰ (70% versus 83-99.3%). Higher red blood cell count under 35 °C than under 25 °C (ca 1.7 versus 1.6 x106 cells/mm3). Lower haematocrit under 12‰ than under 6‰ and 0‰ (29.1% versus 33.7%). No difference in haemoglobin levels, but higher haemoglobin under 35 °C than under 25 °C at day 0, day 1, day 4, day 7, and day 28 (ca 9 g/dL versus 8 g/dL). Highest glucose level on day 1 under 30 °C and 12‰ (ca 0.8 g/L versus 0.6-0.75 g/L), highest cortisol level on day 1 under 35 °C and 6‰ (ca 60 ng/mL versus 20-50 ng/mL) [47].
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Thai pangas) in 100 L glass aquaria (75 x 45 x 45 cm) at 24 °C were gradually acclimated to 28 °C, 32 °C, or 36 °C at 1 °C/h. After 28 days, no difference in survival rates (98.6-100%). Lower glucose level under 36 °C compared to the other temperatures (ca 70 mg/dL versus 90 mg/dL) after higher glucose level under 36 °C compared to 24 °C at day 7 (ca 130 mg/dL versus 100 mg/dL). No difference in haemoglobin levels (ca 9 g/dL) after lower haemoglobin level under 36 °C compared to the other temperatures at day 7 (ca 6 g/dL versus 8 g/dL). Higher frequency of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities, e.g. blebbed nuclei, notched nuclei, nuclear bridge, nuclear bud, and higher frequency of erythrocytic cell abnormalities, e.g. elongated cell, fusion, tear-drop shape, under 36 °C and tendency of higher frequency under 32 °C compared to other temperatures, higher at day 7 and decreased by day 28 [41].
  • For temperature and deformities  [F7].
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  • Temperature must exceed: 24 °C:
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Tra catfish) in 500 L tanks at density 45 IND/tank and accustomed to 27 °C were gradually acclimated to 24 °C, 27 °C, 30 °C, 32 °C, 34 °C, or 36 °C at rate of 2 °C/d. After 56 days, lower specific growth rate (1%/d versus 1.6-2.2%/d) and higher FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (2.4 versus 1.2-1.6) under 24 °C than all other temperatures. Higher specific growth rate under 34 °C than all other temperatures (2.2%/d versus 1-1.8%/d) [45].
  • Temperature must not go beyond: no data found yet.
  • Optimal temperature for growth:
    • FARM: six day-old FRY in 25 L tanks (50 x 25 x 25 cm) at density 12 IND/L under <50 lux due to opaque cover, acclimated to 28 °C, and gradually exposed to either 23 °C, 25.5 °C, 28 °C, 30.5 °C, or 33 °C at rate of max. 1.5 °C/h. From 10 days after hatching on until 26 days after hatching, increasing weight gain with increasing temperature. At 26 days after hatching, no difference between 30.5 °C and 33 °C. FRY under these two temperature regimes ended the experiment between 27 and 29 days, because they reached the envisioned 1 g. At 38 days after hatching, FRY under 25.5 °C had reached 821 mg, FRY under 23 °C 67 mg. Size heterogeneity was lower under 28 °C, 30.5 °C, and 33 °C than under 25.5 °C and 23 °C (21-30% versus 21-43% versus 21-50%).
      Second experiment: 40 h-old FRY in 25 L tanks at density 16 IND/L, acclimated to 28 °C and gradually exposed to either 28 °C, 30.5 °C, or 33 °C. Sampled FRY were not returned to the tanks due to high risk of injuries and mortality at this early age, so density decreased over study period. Growth differences appeared at second observation time at 88 h post hatching with higher weight under 33 °C than 28 °C (ca 2.7 mg versus 2.2 mg), 30.5 °C in between (ca 2.5 mg). From third observation time at 112 h on, increasing weight with increasing temperature. No difference in size heterogeneity (20.1-21.9% at 136 h).
      Growth estimates based on both experiments revealed optimum temperature for growth to be 31 °C with beginning of exogenous feeding increasing to 32.7 °C by 8 mg and decreasing relative to wet mass. FRY feeding from 2 days after hatching on would reach 1 g at 20 days post hatching. Difference to results found under 33 °C are probably due to feeding exclusively during daytime [14].
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Thai pangas) in 100 L glass aquaria (75 x 45 x 45 cm) at 24 °C were gradually acclimated to 28 °C, 32, °C, or 36 °C at 1 °C/h. After 28 days, higher specific growth rate (0.85-0.92%/d versus 0.56-0.62%/d) and lower FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.5-1.6 versus 2.1-2.3) under 28 °C and 32 °C compared to 24 °C and 36 °C [41].
  • Temperature and growth:
    • LAB: eggs and semen (Striped catfish) were mixed at 29 °C and transferred to 42 °C water bath for 2.5 min before cleavage at 28, 28.5, 29, 29.5, 30, or 30.5 min after fertilisation. Eggs were returned to 28-30 °C water. After hatching at 20-24 h and rearing for 30 days, no difference in specific growth rate for length (4.5-6.6%/d), specific growth rate for weight (13.7-18.6%/d), and FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.2-1.5) in all groups compared to control [44].
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Tra catfish) in 500 L tanks at density 50 IND/tank (150 IND/m3) accustomed to 25 °C and fresh water were gradually acclimated to 25 °C, 30 °C, or 35 °C and 0‰, 6‰, or 12‰ at rate of 2 °C/d and 2‰/d. After 56 days, increasing specific growth rate with increasing temperature, highest under 35 °C and 6‰ (1.5%/d versus 0.5-1.1%/d) probably due to increased feed intake to accommodate increased metabolism following stress. Increasing FOOD CONVERSION RATIO with increasing salinity, highest under 30 °C and 12‰ (4.3 versus 1.9-4) [47].
  • For temperature and feeding  [F6].
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8.2 Oxygen

  • For oxygen range and swimming depth  [F8].
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8.3 Salinity

  • Salinity tolerance:
    • Observations STENOHALINE LAB: [48].
    • Natural and introduced distribution in fresh water [F9] [F10] [F11].
  • Standard salinity range: no data found yet.
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  • Lower and upper lethal limits:
    • FARM: JUVENILES (River catfish or Thai pangas) in 400 m2 ponds (1.3 m depth) at density 0.25 IND/m2 and either acclimated to 6 ppt for 24 h or not were transferred to salinity of 0-5 ppt, 7-8 ppt, 10-12 ppt, 12-15 ppt, or 18-22 ppt. After seven days, survival of 100% at 0-5 ppt, 7-8 ppt. Also 100% at 10-12 ppt, but only if acclimated beforehand to 6 ppt, otherwise 87%. Decreasing survival with increasing salinity (12-15 ppt: 30%, 18-22 ppt: 0%).
      Second study: JUVENILES (River catfish or Thai pangas) in 400 m2 ponds (1.3 m depth) at density 2 IND/m2 and salinity of 0 ppt, 6.5 ppt, or 10.8 ppt. After 160 days, no difference in survival rates (96.1-96.8%) [49].
    • LAB, JUVENILES (Striped catfish): pre-test to determine median lethal concentration gave 100% survival until 13‰, almost 100% mortality at 17‰ after 24 h, LC_50 after 96 h: 14.9‰ [48].
  • Salinity change and stress:
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Tra catfish) in 300 L tanks at density 50 IND/tank and gradually acclimated to 2‰, 6‰, 10‰, 14‰, or 18‰ by changing salinity at rate of 2‰/d (1‰/d after reaching 10‰ in conditions of 14‰ and 18‰). After 56 days, lower survival under 18‰ than all other conditions (38.9% versus 77.3-99.5%). Lower survival under 14‰ than under 6‰ (77.3% versus 99.5%); 2‰ and 10‰ in between (80.5-91.4%). No difference in cortisol levels (0.6-3.2 ng/mL), but higher levels under 18‰ than all other groups at the beginning of the experiment (16.7 ng/mL versus 2.6-5.5 ng/mL), after 6 h (19.8 ng/mL versus 6-8.9 ng/mL), and peaking after 24 h (28.5 ng/mL versus 5.7-11 ng/mL). No difference in glucose levels (0.5-0.7 g/L), but higher glucose under 18‰ and 14‰ than the other groups at 6 h (0.9-1 g/L versus 0.6 g/L) [50].
    • LAB: JUVENILES (Striped catfish) in 100 L glass aquaria (75 x 45 x 45 cm) and salinity of 4‰, 8‰, or 12‰. After 56 days, lower survival under 12‰ compared to other groups and control (75% versus 100%). No differences in haemoglobin levels (6.1-6.8%), red blood cell count (0.5-0.6x106/mm3), white blood cell count (1.3-1.5x106/mm3), and blood glucose (122-135 mg/dL), but lower haemoglobin level (4.5% versus 6.5-6.7%), lower red blood cell count (0.4 versus 0.5-0.6x106/mm3), higher white blood cell count (1.5 versus 1.2-1.4x106/mm3), and higher blood glucose (189 mg/dL versus 136.7-169.5 mg/dL) under 12‰ compared to the other groups at day 7. No differences in frequency of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities: binuclei (0.2-0.5), micronucleus (0.1-0.7%), blebbed nuclei (0.8-0.9%), nuclear bud (0.6-0.8%), notched nuclei (0.1-0.8%), but higher frequency of binuclei (1.7% versus 0.2%), micronucleus (1.8% versus 0.2%), blebbed nuclei (1.8% versus 0.5%), nuclear bud (1.8% versus 0.8%), and notched nuclei (1.6% versus 0.2%) under 12‰ compared to control at day 7. No differences in frequency of erythrocytic cellular abnormalities: tear-drop (0.7-0.8%), fusion (0.7-0.9%), elongated cell (0.7-0.8%), echinocytic cell (0.6-0.8%), or twin (0.8%), but higher frequency of tear-drop (1.8% versus 0.8%), fusion (1.8% versus 0.9%), elongated cell (1.8% versus 0.8%), echinocytic cell (1.9% versus 0.9%), and twin (2% versus 1%) under 12‰ compared to control at day 7 [48].
  • For salinity, temperature, and stress  [F12].
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  • FARM: JUVENILES (River catfish or Thai pangas) in 400 m2 ponds (1.3 m depth) at density 2 IND/m2 and salinity of average 0 ppt, 6.5 ppt, or 10.8 ppt. After 160 days, no difference in mean final weight (683.9-686.8 g) or length (37.9-38.9 cm), specific growth rate (2.9%/d), and FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.6) [49].
  • LAB: JUVENILES (Tra catfish) in 300 L tanks at density 50 IND/tank and gradually acclimated to 2‰, 6‰, 10‰, 14‰, or 18‰ by changing salinity at rate of 2‰/d (1‰/d after reaching 10‰ in conditions of 14‰ and 18‰). After 56 days, lower specific growth rate (0.4%/d versus 0.9-1.3%/d) and higher FOOD CONVERSION RATIO under 18‰ than all other conditions (4.1 versus 1.5-2.3). Lower specific growth rate under 14‰ than under control and 10‰ (0.9%/d versus 1.3%/d); 2‰ and 6‰ in between (1.2%/d). Higher FOOD CONVERSION RATIO under 14‰ than under control (2.3 versus 1.5); 2‰, 6‰, and 10‰ in between (1.8-1.9) [50].
  • LAB: JUVENILES (Striped catfish) in 100 L glass aquaria (75 x 45 x 45 cm) and salinity of 4‰, 8‰, or 12‰. After 56 days, higher specific growth rate (0.8%/d versus 0.6%/d) and lower FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.5 versus 2.3) under 4‰ than 12‰; 8‰ and control in between (0.7%/d, 1.9-1.9) [48].
  • For salinity, temperature, and growth  [F13].
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8.4 pH

  • Standard pH range:
    • Observations WILD: 6.8-8: Madampa lake, Sri Lanka (introduced) [22].
  • pH preference: no data found yet.
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8.5 Turbidity

No data found yet.

8.6 Water hardness

No data found yet.

8.7 NO4

No data found yet.

8.8 Other

No data found yet.


9 Swimming

9.1 Swimming type, swimming mode

No data found yet.

9.2 Swimming speed

  • Absolute swimming speed: no data found yet.
  • Relative swimming speed: no data found yet.
  • Swimming speed and temperature: no data found yet.
  • Swimming speed and tank background colour:
    • LAB: JUVENILES in 7 L plastic tanks at density 15 IND/tank and either green, black, or white background colour. After 20 days, higher swimming speed in green than white tanks (5.5 cm/s versus 3.4 cm/s), black tanks in between (4.1 cm/s) [9].
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  • Standard velocity range:
    • WILD: FRY were caught in slow current of 0.2-0.5 m/s in June and 0.5-1 m/s in July: Mekong river, Cambodia [3].
  • Velocity preference: no data found yet.
  • Velocity and temperature: no data found yet.
  • For current and cannibalism  [F3].
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9.3 Home range

No data found yet.

9.4 Depth

  • Depth range in the wild:
    • Observations WILD: FRY: 4.5-6 m: Mekong river, Cambodia [3], JUVENILES: 2-4 m: lake Kinneret, Israel (introduced) [21].
    • For depth and spawning  [F1].
  • Depth in cages or tanks:
    • FARM: JUVENILES in ponds (3,000 m2, 4 m depth) without aeration at 14 IND/m3. In one pond in mid production (April), JUVENILES mostly swam in upper 1 m of pond, rarely until 2.5 m in oxygen range of 2-141%. In another pond shortly before harvest (August), JUVENILES swam in upper 0.5 m in oxygen range of 5-51%. Results indicate the avoidance of water levels below 2.5 m or 0.5 m due to severe hypoxia or even anoxia [51].
    • LAB: newly-hatched LARVAE lived on bottom of aquarium, also swam to surface. Horizontal swimming from day 2 on [10].
  • Depth preference: no data found yet.
  • Depth and daily rhythm: no data found yet.
  • Depth and low temperatures: no data found yet.
  • Depth and high temperatures: no data found yet.
  • Position in habitat and age: no data found yet.
  • Depth and light intensity:
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 1 L glass basins (18 cm diameter) at density 10 IND/basin in a dark room (<0.01 lux) were exposed to light intensities of 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 lux for 30 min. At <0.01 and 0.1 lux, FRY swam to the surface, under higher light intensity, they swam in the water column or rested on the bottom [17].
  • Depth and noise: no data found yet.
  • Depth and threat: no data found yet.
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9.5 Migration

  • JUVENILES and ADULTS migrate within fresh water, ADULTS migrate to spawning grounds:
    • WILD: FRY are being carried downstream with increase of water level in June-July: Mekong river, Cambodia [3].
    • WILD: migrate upstream until Khone falls in October-February (dry season) probably due to decreasing water levels. Migrate downstream May-August (flood season) probably to spawn. FRY drift downstream and are carried back upstream when current reverses: Mekong river, Cambodia and Vietnam [4].
    • WILD: large specimen moved upstream in October-November, smaller in December. Probably downstream movement in May-June: Mekong, Cambodia [5].
    • WILD: in a transition period in May-June, ADULTS migrate longitudinally to spawning grounds. In June-July, LARVAE passively drift to feeding areas on the floodplain. In the flood season in July-November, ADULTS move laterally to floodplain areas for feeding and growth. In a transition period in December-January, JUVENILES and ADULTS move laterally from seasonal to permanent water bodies. In February, they move longitudinally to dry season refuges and disperse. In the dry season in February-April, individuals concentrate in permanent water bodies [6].
    • WILD: JUVENILES-ADULTS (18-68 cm, 100-5,000 g; Striped catfish) moved 200 m to 15 km within 13-176 days. In wet season (November-February), majority moved to inlets of reservoir probably to spawn: Gajah Mungkur reservoir, Java (introduced) [7].
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10 Growth

10.1 Ontogenetic development

  • Observations time from fertilisation until hatching FARM: 24 h (at 28 °C) [14], 26 h (at 28 °C) (Striped catfish) [52], 34 h (at 27.3 °C) [16].
  • Observations time from fertilisation until hatching LAB: 19-21 h (at 28.5-29.5 °C) taking 6-8 h [53], 26-29 h (at 27-30 °C) [54], 22.8-25 h (at 26-30 °C) taking 7-9 h [55], 24-36 h (at 20-30 °C) (Pangasius sutchi) [12], range 21-27 h [13], 24.5 h (at 27.9-29 °C) [10], 24 h (Sutchi catfish) [56], 27 h (at 27 °C; Sutchi catfish) [43], 23-28 h (at 26-31 °C) [57].
  • Observations size FARM: 1.4-1.8 mm (Striped catfish) [52], 1.3 mm at stripping [16].
  • Observations size LAB: 1.1-1.2 mm [54], 1.06-1.12 mm at stripping [55], 1.4 x 1.2 mm (Pangasius sutchi) [12], 1.0-1.1 mm [58], 1.1-1.3 mm [10], 1.2-1.4 mm [59].
  • Observations weight LAB: 0.6-0.7 mg [53], 0.6 mg [13].
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  • Observations age at yolk sac absorption FARM: 60 h after hatching [16].
  • Observations age and TOTAL LENGTH at yolk sac absorption LAB: day 4, 6.2-6.8 mm (Pangasius sutchi) [12], ca 76 h, ca 6.6 mm [13], day 3, 6.5 mm body length [10].
  • Observations TOTAL LENGTH FARM: 3.8 mm at hatching [16].
  • Observations TOTAL LENGTH LAB: 2.7-3.0 mm at hatching [55], 3.0-3.1 mm at hatching (Pangasius sutchi) [12], 3.4 mm and 0.6 mg at hatching [13], 2.8-3.2 mm body length at hatching [10], 3.7 mm at hatching (Sutchi catfish) [56].
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  • Observations age at beginning of exogenous feeding FARM: 36-40 h after hatching, systematic from 48 h after hatching on [14], day 3 (Striped catfish) [52], 40 h after hatching [16].
  • Observations age at beginning of exogenous feeding LAB: 36 h after hatching [53], 36 h [60], 3-6 days after hatching (Pangasius sutchi) [12], 36 h and 0.9 mg [32], 42 h, systematic by 46 h and 6.2 mm and 1 mg [13], day 2 [10], day 2 (Sutchi catfish) [56], 24 h post hatch (Striped catfish) [15], day 2 (Sutchi catfish) [43].
  • Observations age and TOTAL LENGTH LAB: functional stomach at 12 days, strong swimming and adult-like form at 14 days and 13.6 mm (Pangasius sutchi) [12], plateau of growth of fins at 36 days [13], 6-12.8 mm body length, for more developmental details  [10], 2 days and 6.8 mm, 5 days and 8.4 mm, 10 days and 11.9 mm (Sutchi catfish) [56], at 3 days and 5.6 mm swim bladder inflated, 5 days and 6.6 mm, 12 days and 12.5 mm (Sutchi catfish), 15 days and 14.1 mm (Sutchi catfish) [17], 2 days and 3 mm and 0.002 g (Sutchi catfish) [43].
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  • Fingerlings: FRY with working fins, the size of a finger, 20-59 days, 1.3-14.4 cm, 0.1-65 g:
    • Observations age, TOTAL LENGTH, and weight FARM: 9.1-9.7 cm and 5.9-6.7 g [61], 4.8 cm, 3.8 g [62], 10.7 cm, 9.9 g [39], 5.8-6 g, 65 g (River catfish or Thai pangas) [49], 15-20 g (Tra catfish) [50], 2.9 cm and 0.3 g (Pangasius pangasius) [63], 9.9 cm and 12.3 g (Thai pangas) [41], 45 days and 12 cm and 15 g (Striped catfish) [48], 6.4 cm and 6.7 g (Thai pangas) [64].
    • Observations age, TOTAL LENGTH, and weight LAB: 1 month and 0.8 g [58], 13.7-14.4 cm, 21-21.7 g Sarkar et al. 2005, 36 days and 64 mm and 1.7 g [13], 15 days, >12.8 mm body length [10], 30 days, 6.4 cm, 6.5 g [65], 5.6 cm and 1.3 g (Striped catfish) [46], 59 days and 5.1 cm and 1.1 g (Sutchi catfish) [11], 12-14 g (Striped catfish) [37], 12 g, 20.6 g (Striped catfish) [38], 20 days and 2.5 cm and 0.1 g (River catfish) [9].
  • Juveniles: fully developed to beginning of maturity, 18.8-35 cm, 0.07-1.0 kg:
    • Observations age, TOTAL LENGTH, and weight WILD: 350 mm, 293.8 g: lake Kinneret, Israel (introduced) [21], 238 mm standard length: Madampa lake, Sri Lanka (introduced) [22].
    • Observations age, TOTAL LENGTH, and weight FARM: 200-1,000 g [51], 18.8 cm, 71.5 g [66].
    • Observations age, TOTAL LENGTH, and weight LAB: 82 g (Striped catfish) [33].
  • Sexual maturity for 50% of JUVENILES: 10 months, 472 g for males, 19 months, 2,249 g for females:
    • Observations age LAB: males at 10 months and 472 g, females at 19 months and 2,249 g [58].
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  • Observations age, TOTAL LENGTH, and weight WILD: female 456 mm standard length, male 360 mm standard length: Madampa lake, Sri Lanka (introduced) [22].
  • Observations age and TOTAL LENGTH, and weight FARM: females 49-69 cm, 1.3-2.9 kg [55], 3+ years and 3.2-4.2 kg (Striped catfish) [52], 3 years, females 1,500-2,500 g, males 1,200-2,000 g [16].
  • Observations age and weight LAB: 4 years, 3-4 kg [53], 3-4 years and 2.3-5.8 kg [54], females 65-71 cm and 2.3-3.5 kg, males 36-70 cm and 1.5-2.6 kg [59], 3 years and 2.5-3 kg [57], 2-4 kg (Striped catfish) [67].
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10.2 Sexual conversion

No data found yet.

10.3 Sex ratio

No data found yet.

10.4 Effects on growth

  • Natural growth rate:
    • WILD (Striped catfish): estimated 57.8 cm, 2,102.2 g in first year, 22 cm, 3,779.8 g in second year, 10.2 cm, 2,772.6 g in third year, 4.8 cm, 1,556.7 g in fourth year: Gajah Mungkur reservoir, Java (introduced) [7].
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  • Growth in polyculture:
    • FARM: JUVENILES in 200 m2 ponds and either a) under monoculture at 17,500 IND/ha or b) in polyculture at 10,000 IND/ha with 2,500 IND/ha Catla Catla catla and 5,000 IND/ha Rohu Labeo rohita (plus 3,750 Giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii) or c) in polyculture at 10,000 IND/ha with 5,000 IND/ha C. catla and 2,500 IND/ha L. rohita (plus 3,750 M. rosenbergii). After seven months, no difference in FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (2.2), but higher weight (503 g versus 383-398 g) and higher net weight gain (499 g versus 379-394 g) under monoculture versus the two polyculture conditions [62].
    • FARM: JUVENILES in 0.02 ha ponds at 30,000 IND/ha and either monoculture or 1:1 or 2:1 polyculture with Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). After 14 weeks, lowest dissolved oxygen (3.7 mg/L versus 4.2-4.7 mg/L), highest phytoplankton growth (289.1 x 103 cells/L versus 141.8-156.6 x 103 cells/L), highest chlorophyll a content (549.2 µg/L versus 267.4-297.3 µg/L), and lowest Secchi depth (19 cm versus 25.4-28.9 cm) under monoculture. No difference in lengths (33.1-35.4 cm), but higher weight in 1:1 polyculture than 2:1 polyculture than monoculture (575.6 g versus 489.4 g versus 467.5 g). Higher specific growth rate (3.6%/d versus 3.4%/d) and lower FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.7 versus 1.9-2) under 1:1 polyculture than the other conditions. Results indicate better growth under polyculture probably due to better water conditions resulting from H. molitrix feeding on phytoplankton Sarkar et al. 2009.
    • FARM: JUVENILES (Thai pangas) in 0.8-1.0 acre ponds (1.2-1.5 m) in polyculture with three carp species (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala) at ratio 30:35:17.5:17.5 ((3,000+3,500+1,750+1,750)/acre; T1), 40:30:15:15 ((4,000+3,000+1,500+1,500)/acre; T2), or 50:25:12.5:12.5 ((5,000+2,500+1,250+1,250)/acre; T3). After 90 days, higher weight (340.1 g versus 318.2-323.2 g) and specific growth rate (4.4%/d versus 3.9-4.3%/d) under T3 than T1 and T2. For carps, higher weight and specific growth rate under T1 than T2 and T3 [64].
  • Growth and incubator type:
    • FARM: fertilised eggs from Ovaprim induced spawners were placed either in hapa net, small 0.5 L or large 10 L McDonald type incubator. Fungus development some hours before hatching, most pronounced in hapa net. Earlier hatching by 2 h in McDonald type incubators probably due to agitation of eggs [53].
    • LAB: fertilised eggs from Ovaprim induced spawners were placed either in hapa net (in re-circulating system), floating screen net (in re-circulating system), McDonald type incubator (connected to re-circulating system), plastic box (filled with water from re-circulating system and stickiness either suppressed with clay or not), plastic box (filled with spring water). No difference in hatching rates indicating that agitation (as in McDonald type incubators) or absence of agitation, adhesion of eggs or absence of it (with the help of clay suspension as in McDonald type incubator and one of the plastic boxes filled with re-circulating water),
      water exchange or absence of it (as in plastic boxes) did not affect hatching. Earlier hatching by 1-2 h in eggs of one of two females in McDonaly type incubator probably due to agitation of eggs. No difference in survival of LARVAE until day 4 [53].
  • Growth and aquaculture system:
    • FARM: JUVENILES either in earthen ponds (1,500 m2, 1.5 m depth) at 5, 6, or 7 IND/m3 or floating net cages (6 x 4 x 3 m) at 50, 60, or 70 IND/m3. After 210 days, higher weight (1,026.9 g versus 975.9 g), higher length (46.3 cm versus 45.1 cm), higher specific growth rate (1.27% versus 1.25%), and higher survival (90.1% versus 78%) in cages compared to ponds. The higher FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.6 versus 1.5) in cages compared to ponds might be due to natural food (phytoplankton, zooplankton) in ponds. During the study, the onset of winter and decreasing temperature to 20 °C affected ponds more severely [66].
[]
  • For growth and...
    ...feeding frequency  [F14],
    ...light intensity  [F15],
    ...light colour  [F16],
    ...water temperature  [F13],
    ...salinity  [F17],
    ...tank colour  [F18],
    ...stocking density  [F19].


10.5 Deformities and malformations

  • FARM: survey among Thai pangas farmers in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh, gave haemorrhage or red spot, anal protrusion, tail and fin rot, pop eye, dropsy, gill rot, cotton wool lesions, ulceration among most common diseases [68].
  • LAB: after induced breeding by injecting human chorionic gonadotropin or Ovaprim (for details of the study  [F20]), 0-15.3% of deformed LARVAE [54].
  • LAB: eggs and semen (Striped catfish) were mixed at 29 °C and transferred to 42 °C water bath for 2.5 min before cleavage at 28, 28.5, 29, 29.5, 30, or 30.5 min after fertilisation. Eggs were returned to 28-30 °C water. After hatching at 20-24 h and rearing for 30 days, higher abnormality rate in all groups compared to control (12.4-27.6% versus 0%), mostly of malformed spine [44].
[]

11 Reproduction

11.1 Nest building

  • Nest building and substrate: no data found yet.
  • Nest building and water velocity: no data found yet.
  • Nest building and water depth: no data found yet.
  • Nest building: no data found yet.
  • For breeding type [F21].
[]

11.2 Attraction, courtship, mating

No data found yet.

11.3 Spawning

  • Spawning substrate: rocks:
    • Observations WILD, ADULTS: spawned probably in rocky area: Mekong, Cambodia [5], eggs were placed on roots of Gimenila asiatica [69]-[6].
  • Spawning season: summer to all year round:
    • Observations WILD, ADULTS: March-August with peak June-July: Mekong river, Cambodia and Vietnam [4], beginning of flood season May-June: Mekong, Cambodia [6].
    • Observations LAB: ADULTS undisturbed in ponds in Indonesia with highest gonadosomatic indices in rainy season (November-March), lowest during dry season (May-August) [58], ADULTS undisturbed in ponds in Indonesia with mature oocytes and milt all year round, slightly decreasing in dry season (May-September) [54], ADULTS undisturbed in ponds in Nepal displayed maturity signs in June-September [57].
  • Spawning (day)time: no data found yet.
  • Spawning temperature: 26-31 °C:
    • Observations LAB: ADULTS undisturbed in ponds in Indonesia at 28-31 °C [58], ADULTS undisturbed in ponds in Indonesia at 27.9-31 °C [54], ADULTS undisturbed in ponds in Nepal at 26-31 °C [57].
  • Spawning salinity: fresh water [F11] [F21].
  • Spawning and water velocity: no data found yet.
  • Spawning depth:
    • Observations WILD: probably in deep pools: Mekong river, Cambodia and Vietnam [4].
  • Spawning density: no data found yet.
[]
  • Male:female ratio resulting in spawning:
    • Observations LAB, ADULTS: 1:1 [54], 2:1, but additional hormone injection [55], 1:1-1:3, but additional hormone injection [59].
  • Composition of broodstock: no data found yet.
[]

11.4 Fecundity

  • Number of spawns: no data found yet.
  • Fecundity per spawn:
    • Observations absolute fecundity WILD, ADULTS: ca 1,000,000 eggs/10 kg female: Mekong, Cambodia [6].
    • Observations absolute fecundity FARM, ADULTS: females injected with single or double doses (6 h apart) of GnRH based hormones (0.3-0.5 ml/kg) spawned 0.8-7.8 lakh/female [lakh=100,000] [59].
    • Observations absolute fecundity LAB, ADULTS: females injected with two doses (500 and 1,500 IU/kg) human chorionic gonadotropin 14 h apart spawned 74,900-587,400 eggs/female [55].
    • Observations relative fecundity FARM, ADULTS: females injected with two doses (2.5-3.0 mg/kg and 10-12 mg/kg) carp pituitary extract 6 h apart spawned 57.5 lakh/kg [lakh=100,000] [16].
    • Observations relative fecundity LAB, ADULTS: females injected with two doses (500 and 1,500 IU/kg) human chorionic gonadotropin 14 h apart spawned 49,800-209,700 eggs/kg [55], undisturbed individuals in ponds in Indonesia with lowest mean fecundity of 49,000 eggs/kg in July, 372,000 eggs/kg in November [58].
[]
  • Fecundity and temperature manipulation: no data found yet.
  • Fecundity and hormone treatment:
    • FARM, ADULTS (Striped catfish): injection of 0.5 mL/kg Ovaprim to females, 0.3 mL/kg to males induced breeding after 10-12 h [52].
    • LAB: ADULTS in 50 m2 ponds in Indonesia at density 0.3 IND/m2 and ratio 1:1. Females were injected with 0.3 mL/kg and 0.6 mL/kg Ovaprim 8 h apart or 500 IU/kg and 2,000 IU/kg human chorionic gonadotropin 8 h apart, males with 0.3-0.4 mL/kg at time of first female injection. No response in six females, otherwise induced breeding all year round [54].
    • LAB: ADULTS (Striped catfish) in 3 x 5 x 1.5 m net cages in 6,000 m2 ponds at density 10 IND/cage (five females, five males) during dry (non-breeding) season. Females were injected with either 5, 10, or 20 IU/kg pregnant mare gonadotropin serum every two weeks for eight weeks. Higher estradiol-17beta concentration under 20 IU/kg than all other groups at 6 weeks (ca 1,400 µg/mL versus 700-1,00 µg/mL); after eight weeks, no difference in concentration between 5 IU/kg and control (ca 1,000 µg/mL) and higher concentration in 5 IU/kg group than the 10 IU/kg and 20 IU/kg groups (ca 1,000 µg/mL versus 800 µg/mL versus 600 µg/mL). Increasing vitellogenin concentration with increasing time with increasing pregnant mare gonadotropin serum with highest concentration at week 4 under 20 IU/kg (63,041 IU/kg versus 45,717 IU/kg at 5 IU/kg), thereafter decreasing with highest concentration at week 8 under control condition (47,522 mg/mL versus ca 10,000 mg/mL under 20 IU/kg). Results indicate faster rematuration under 20 IU/kg than the other conditions. After eight weeks, when mature, females were injected with 500 IU/kg human chorionic gonadotropin and 10 h later with 0.5 mL/kg Ovaprim. Higher gonadal maturity rate under 20 IU/kg than 5 and 10 IU/kg than control (100% versus 53.3-66.7% versus 26.7%). Higher fecundity under 20 IU/kg than under 5 IU/kg and control (190,734 eggs/kg versus 123,407-132,014 eggs/kg), 10 IU/kg in between (163,812 eggs/kg). Higher hatching rate under 20 IU/kg than all other groups (93.8% versus 83.7-86.5%) [67].
    • LAB: ADULTS in earthen ponds were injected with Ovuline at 0.5 mL/kg female and 0.25 mL/kg male which induced breeding 8-14 h later [57].
[]

11.5 Brood care, breeding

  • Breeding type: river spawner:
    • Observations: [4].
  • Nursery grounds:
    • WILD: FRY drifted downstream to fertile flood plains [4].
[]

12 Senses

12.1 Vision

  • LAB, JUVENILES (Sutchi catfish): spectrophotometry of retina of dissected eyes yielded absorbance curves of wavelengths with peak at 560 nm (for blue, green, and yellow light) and 540 nm (for red light) reflecting natural conditions in freshwater habitat mainly transmitting longer wavelengths of red [70].
[]
  • LAB, JUVENILES (River catfish): large cerebellum (27% volume ratio), prominent optic tectum (14% volume ratio), indicating high importance of vision and adaptation to swimming during day and night [71].
  • For vision and feeding  [F6] [F5].
[]
  • LAB: JUVENILES in 7 L plastic tanks at density 15 IND/tank and either green, black, or white background colour. After 20 days, no difference in survival (100%) and no incidence of cannibalism. Lower density of mucous cells in green compared to white and black tanks (7-8.7 cells/mm versus 4.3 cells/mm) indicating lowest stress in tanks with green background colour [9].
[]
  • LAB: JUVENILES in 7 L plastic tanks at density 15 IND/tank and either green, black, or white background colour. After 20 days, higher final weight (0.5-0.6 g versus 0.4 g), body weight gain (284.6-315.9% versus 213.6%), final TOTAL LENGTH (4.2-4.3 cm versus 3.9 cm), TOTAL LENGTH gain (64.8-69.1% versus 54.5%), and specific growth rate (6.7-7.1%/d versus 5.7%/d) in green and white tanks compared to black tanks with tendency of better values in white tanks [9].
[]

12.2 Olfaction (and taste, if present)

  • Olfaction and foraging:
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 500 mL beakers and either under 600 lux or covered with black plastic. No difference in ingestion rates of frozen or live Artemia nauplii at 2 days old (median ca 5-7 Artemia/IND/h). Increase in ingestion rates from 3 days on. At day 4, higher ingestion rate of frozen than live Artemia regardless of light intensity (median ca 25 Artemia/IND/h versus 5-12 Artemia/IND/h) and higher ingestion rate of live Artemia at dark than light (median ca 12 Artemia/IND/h versus 5 Artemia/IND/h). Differences decreased from day 5 on. Results indicate detection of feed with different sensory organs from day 2 on, namely eyes and taste/olfaction with taste buds on mouth, barbels, and head [56].
    • LAB: FRY (Sutchi catfish) in 500 mL beakers and either immersed in streptomycin solution 24 h before experiment to block neuromast cells or not and under light or dark condition. After 19 days, no difference in ingestion rates in blocked or intact FRY and under light or dark conditions. Results indicate non-importance of vision and neuromast cells and probably higher importance of chemosense in feeding [8].
    • LAB, JUVENILES (River catfish): olfactory lobe was second-largest part of the brain (14% volume ratio versus 27% cerebellum, 14% optic tectum, 11% electric-sensitive lateral line lobe) [71].
[]

12.3 Hearing

No data found yet.

12.4 Touch, mechanical sensing

No data found yet.

12.5 Lateral line

  • LAB, JUVENILES (River catfish): electric lateral line lobe was third-largest part of the brain (11% volume ratio versus 27% cerebellum, 14% optic tectum, 14% olfactory lobe) [71].
[]

12.6 Electrical sensing

No data found yet.

12.7 Nociception, pain sensing

No data found yet.

12.8 Other

No data found yet.


13 Communication

13.1 Visual

  • LAB: JUVENILES in 7 L plastic tanks at density 15 IND/tank and either green, black, or white background colour. After 20 days, darker body colour in green and black tanks compared to white tank (29.6-49.5% versus 58.1%). Dark colour was maintained for two weeks in transparent tank [9].
[]

13.2 Chemical

No data found yet.

13.3 Acoustic

No data found yet.

13.4 Mechanical

No data found yet.

13.5 Electrical

No data found yet.

13.6 Other

No data found yet.


14 Social behaviour

14.1 Spatial organisation

  • LAB, FRY-JUVENILES: schooling from day 6 on, only dissolving during feeding. More pronounced schooling, especially in dark areas of aquarium, from day 20 on [10].
  • LAB: JUVENILES (Sutchi catfish) in 30 L acrylic aquaria at density 20 IND/aquarium under light intensities of 1.4x10-3 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 0.1 lux), 1.4x10-2 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 1 lux), or 1.4 µmol/m2/s (equivalent to 100 lux) from 06:00 h to 18:00 h. During 11 days, were observed to school under 1.4 µmol/m2/s but not under the dimmer light intensities [11].
[]
  • FARM: JUVENILES (Sutchi catfish) in 1 x 1 x 1.5 m cages in canal at density 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, or 150 IND/m3. After 150 days, no difference in survival (94.8-98%) [61].
  • FARM: JUVENILES (River catfish or Thai pangas) in 400 m2 ponds (1.3 m depth) at average salinity of 9.5-9.8 ppt and density of 2 IND/m2 or 3 IND/m2. After six months, no difference in survival rates (95.1-95.7%) [49].
  • For stocking density and stress and...
    ...prey density  [F2],
    ...light intensity  [F22].
[]
  • FARM: JUVENILES (Sutchi catfish) in 1 x 1 x 1.5 m cages in canal at density 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, or 150 IND/m3. After 150 days, highest weight gain under 100 IND/m3 than all other groups (269.3 g versus 235.9-261.5 g), lowest under 70-90 IND/m3 and 130-150 IND/m3 (235.9-247.2 IND/m3). No difference in specific growth rate (2.4-2.6%/d) and FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.6-1.8) [61].
  • FARM: JUVENILES (River catfish or Thai pangas) in 400 m2 ponds (1.3 m depth) at average salinity of 9.5-9.8 ppt and density of 2 IND/m2 or 3 IND/m2. After six months, no difference in mean final weight (784.9-790.6 g) or length (42-43.1 cm), specific growth rate (2.9%/d), and FOOD CONVERSION RATIO (1.6) [49].
  • FARM: JUVENILES (Pangasius pangasius) in 2 x 2 x 1 m cages in 600 m2 ponds (depth 2 m) at density 15 IND/m3, 20 IND/m3, 25 IND/m3, or 30 IND/m3. After 120 days, decreasing weight gain (77.6 g under 15 IND/m3 versus 55.4 g under 30 IND/m3) and decreasing daily weight gain (0.65 g/d under 15 IND/m3 versus 0.46 g/d under 30 IND/m3) with increasing density. But higher FOOD CONVERSION RATIO under 15 IND/m3 than 20 IND/m3 and 25 IND/m3 (1.8 versus 1.6 versus 1.5) [63].
  • For stocking density and growth and prey density  [F2].
[]

14.2 Social organisation

No data found yet.

14.3 Exploitation

  • FARM: hatched FRY not getting used to external food became cannibalistic and died shortly after [16].
  • LAB: FRY were either kept at density 30 IND/tank in 300 mL plastic containers or individually in 150 mL plastic container and either with addition of 5 mg/L antibiotic oxytetracycline or not. Two peaks of mortality at days 2 and 5-7. After eight days, higher survival under individually reared than group-reared FRY without antibiotic (6.7-13.3% versus 0-10%) and higher survival under addition of antibiotic in individually than group-reared FRY (51.9-83.3% versus 30-53.3%). Higher number of missing FRY in groups without antibiotic than with it (25.6-43.4% versus 10-30%); no missing FRY in isolated groups. No difference in number of missing FRY between groups fed Artemia nauplii and non-fed control group (25.6-51%) indicating natural death and not cannibalism. No difference in final weight between groups (15.3-21.9 mg). Seldom observation of cannibalism. Results indicate cause for mortality rather infections than cannibalism [60].
  • LAB, FRY: frequent cannibalism with insufficient food [12] [15].
  • LAB: 1 day-old FRY in 30 L PVC tanks. At 1-7 days old (5.5-8.5 mm), higher mouth gape than body depth making possible to grasp conspecifics. Teeth and oral spines present at time of mouth opening (12 h after hatching). Spines grew faster, reaching the maximum length at 71 h, thereafter being increasingly embedded in gum matrix. At 36-62 h, not possible for FRY to re-open mouth after forced closure probably due to risk of injury.
    Anaesthetized FRY moved in dish entangled at 28 h, but disentangled again. At 46 h, 67.5% FRY entangled mostly in pairs or trios, but sometimes in groups of seven out of 20. Tendency to entangle decreased until stop at 105 h. Grips with frontal mouth especially firm. Grips of thorax and head resulted in death within 30 min. Only <2% were cases of true cannibalism, otherwise no body parts ingested. Results indicate that often described high rates of cannibalism are in fact unintentional entanglements during phase of large gape, long sharp oral spines, limited swimming capacity, and weak jaw muscles. To avoid entanglements, FRY should not be moved, e.g. by transportation or current in rearing containers, during the age of 46-105 h and be kept at low density. To decrease infection from injuries, water should be kept at optimum quality [13].
  • LAB: cannibalism in FRY from day 2 on (despite Zooplankton present), decreasing on day 4-5, ending on day 6 [10].
  • For cannibalism and...
    ...light intensity  [F22],
    ...water temperature  [F12].
[]

14.4 Facilitation

No data found yet.

14.5 Aggression

  • For aggression and light intensity  [F22].

14.6 Territoriality

No data found yet.


15 Cognitive abilities

15.1 Learning

No data found yet.

15.2 Memory

No data found yet.

15.3 Problem solving, creativity, planning, intelligence

No data found yet.

15.4 Other

No data found yet.


16 Personality, coping styles

No data found yet.


17 Emotion-like states

17.1 Joy

No data found yet.

17.2 Relaxation

No data found yet.

17.3 Sadness

No data found yet.

17.4 Fear

No data found yet.


18 Self-concept, self-recognition

No data found yet.


19 Reactions to husbandry

19.1 Stereotypical and vacuum activities

No data found yet.

19.2 Acute stress

  • Transfer without water:
    • FARM: survey of five factories along Mekong river. JUVENILES were transferred from boat to processing factory in baskets without water for up to 20 min resulting in red mouth and belly and sometimes death. Were killed by cutting, no stunning. Increasing the time of rest in the boat from 48 h to 72 h increased amount of discoloured (yellow and red) fillets indicating decrease in quality (4.5% yellow coloured and 6% pink coloured versus 0.9% yellow coloured and 4.5% pink coloured) and decreased muscle pH (7.2 versus 6.7-6.8) indicating stress. Recommended to kill as early as possible, e.g. by the river, and then transfer to the processing factory [72].
[]
  • FARM: survey among 20 farmers along Mekong river: FRY and JUVENILES (8-12 weeks) are crowded in corner of earthen pond, not fed 24 h before transportation, carried in oxygenated bags to boat, acclimated for 0.5 h, and released into the hull of the boat. No aeration. Range of transports 3-18 h. Transportation density 36.5-106.7 kg/m3. Transportation mortality 25-262 IND after 3 h, 0-135 IND after 6 h, 0-12 IND after 9 h indicating the majority of mortality being due to handling during harvest, packing, and loading. Increase after stocking in grow-out ponds, highest on the second day (ca 1,000 IND), slowly decreasing thereafter [73].
[]
  • For acute stress...
    ...light intensity  [F22],
    ...water temperature  [F12].

19.3 Chronic stress

  • For chronic stress and...
    ...feed enrichment  [F23],
    ...feeding frequency  [F24],
    ...light intensity  [F22],
    ...light colour  [F25],
    ...water temperature  [F12],
    ...salinity  [F26],
    ...tank colour  [F27],
    ...stocking density  [F28].

19.4 Stunning reactions

  • Stunning rules: to minimise pain reactions and enhance welfare before slaughter:
    1. induce insensibility as fast as possible,
    2. prevent recovery from stunning,
    3. monitor effectiveness (observations, neurophysiological measurements) [74].
[]
  • To minimise pain reactions, enhance welfare, and reduce the impact on the quality of the fish meat, these are across species the most efficient stunning methods [74] [75]:
    a) percussive stunning (if immediately followed by exsanguination),
    b) electrical stunning (if immediately followed by exsanguination),
    c) anaesthetics (clove oil derivants),
    d) spiking (if immediately followed by exsanguination),
    e) shooting,
    but only a) and b) are adaptable to industrial scale, whereas c) is still not admitted for food purposes in Europe.
    Further research needed for a specific protocol for P. hypophthalmus.
[]

Glossary

ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
FARM = setting in farm environment
FOOD CONVERSION RATIO = (food offered / weight gained)
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
MILLIARD = 1,000,000,000 [30] [31]
STENOHALINE = tolerant of a narrow range of salinities
TOTAL LENGTH = from snout to tip of caudal fin as compared to fork length (which measures from snout to fork of caudal fin) [34] or standard length (from head to base of tail fin) or body length (from the base of the eye notch to the posterior end of the telson)
WILD = setting in the wild


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