Short profile


FishEthoScore of the species

Abbreviated assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Criteria Li Po Ce
1 Home range ?
2 Depth range ?
3 Migration ? ?
4 Reproduction
5 Aggregation ?
6 Aggression ?
7 Substrate ?
8 Stress
9 Malformation ?
10 Slaughter / / /
FishEthoScore 0 2 4
Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential overall potential of the individuals of the species to experience welfare under improved farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential
 
                    ?     /  
  High    Medium     Low     Unclear  No findings
 
FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)



General remarks

The production of Perca fluviatilis has emerged over the past decades while important biological processes of the species are not known yet. The low FishEthoScore is mainly due to this big gap of knowledge in several characteristics, such as the dependence on fish in the diet, home and depth needs and needs of substrate. Tanks or raceways will most probably not fulfill space needs in intensive conditions. Further research is needed on both natural behaviour and physiological effects of farming practices in order to provide recommendations for improving fish welfare.

 

 


1. Are minimal farming conditions likely to provide the home range of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
M
Potential
L
Certainty

Eggs and larvae: Pelagic [1]: Inhabit the water column, independent of bottom and shore. Further research needed on home range. Incubation containers in ponds: 100-4000 L [2]; cages for floating eggs: 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.4 m [3]; intensive conditions: 300 L to several m3 dependent on the farming conditions [3].

Juveniles, adults: Pelagic [4] [5] [6]: Inhabit the water column, independent of bottom and shore; site fidelity [7]. Further research needed on home range. Extensive conditions: Ponds: 0.1-0.8 hectares [3]. Semi-intensive conditions done on a pilot scale: Tanks: ca 3 x 3 x 0.5 m [3].

Adults: no data found yet on home range within the spawning season. Spawning tanks: 1.6 m3 [8].


2. Are minimal farming conditions likely to provide the depth range of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
M
Potential
H
Certainty

Eggs and larvae: Usually 0-2 m [9] [10]; diel vertical shifting (deeper by night and dawn) [11]. Extensive conditions: Ponds: 1.5 m [3]. Semi-intensive conditions done on a pilot scale: Tanks: 50 cm [3]. Further research needed on depth under intensive farming conditions.

Juveniles, adults: Caught at 0.5-12 m [12] [13] [9] [14] [15] [16]; seasonal vertical shifting into deeper water [17] [7] [11]. Extensive conditions: Ponds: 1.5 m [3]. Semi-intensive conditions done on a pilot scale: Tanks: 50 cm [3]. Further research needed  on depth under intensive farming conditions.

Adults: Caught at 0.5-12 m within spawning season [13] [15]. No data found yet on depth of spawning culture conditions.


3. Are minimal farming conditions compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
?
Potential
L
Certainty

Eggs and larvae: stationary [10].

Juveniles: no data found yet.

Adults: may migrate before spawning [18] [19]. Further research needed to determine migration behaviour. 

Adults: no data found yet on migration behaviour within spawning season.


4. Is the species likely to reproduce in captivity without manipulation? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
H
Potential
M
Certainty

Adults: In the wild, spawning in winter-spring [13] [20] [21]. Tanks: Temperature and photoperiod manipulation to adjust reproduction time [8]. Eggs are manually extracted by stripping [8]


5. Is the aggregation imposed by minimal farming conditions likely to be compatible with the natural behaviour of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
M
Potential
L
Certainty

Eggs and larvae: live in shoals [22]. Further research needed to determine extension of shoals in the wild. Extensive conditions: 10,000-60,000 eyed eggs/100 m2 [3]. Semi-intensive conditions: 500-4,000 eggs/100 m2 [3]. Intensive conditions: Tanks: Usually 20-50 larvae/L [3].  

Juveniles, adults: live in schools [23] [13] [24] and shoals [25] [26] [27] [28]. Further research needed to determine extension of shoals and schools in the wild.

Juveniles: extensive conditions: Ponds: 1,000-5,000 juveniles of 0.5-1.5 g each in 100 m2 [3]. Semi-intensive conditions: Tanks: 500-4,000 individuals/100 m[3]. Intensive conditions: Tanks: 1.6-3 kg/m[29].

Adults: live in schools within spawning season [13]. Further research needed to determine extension of schools in the wild. Spawning tanks: Up to 20 kg/m3 [8]


6. Is the species likely to be non-aggressive and non-territorial? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

Larvae: In the wild, no aggressive interactions [22], cannibalistic incidences [30]

Juveniles, adults: In the wild, cannibalistic incidences [23] [30] [9] [31] [32] [33]. In the lab, aggressive in groups of 3 [34] and 4 [35], consistent personality traits (bold/shy) [27] [36]

Juveniles: In the lab, no food competition in groups of 4 [37]

Adults: no data found yet on aggression behaviour in the wild within the spawning season. In the lab, no aggression recorded during courtship [38].

For all age classes, no data found yet on aggression behaviour under farming conditions.


7. Are minimal farming conditions likely to match the natural substrate and shelter needs of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
H
Potential
H
Certainty

Eggs: attached to substrate [13] [39] [15] [21]. Larvae: Pelagic [1]: Independent of bottom substrate. No data found yet on behaviour under farming conditions.

Juveniles: usually found on rocky and plants beds [30] [9] [34] [40]. No data found yet on behaviour under farming conditions.

Adults: attach eggs to gravel [15], macrophytes [13] [15], tree roots [15], branches [15] [41]. Tanks: Tree branches as spawning substrate improve condition of spawners [2].

8. Are minimal farming conditions (handling, confinement etc.) likely not to stress the individuals of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
H
Certainty

Larvae: No data found yet.

Juveniles: Stressed by confinement [42] and handling [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48]

Adults: No data found yet on stress in adults kept for fattening. During spawning season, handling stress caused 0-10% mortality in males, 15-17% in females [2].


9. Are malformations of this species likely to be rare under farming conditions? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
M
Potential
H
Certainty

Eggs and larvae: initially rearing in ponds and feeding natural food before transferring to tanks reduces frequency of skeletal and other deformities compared to sole tank culture [3].

Juveniles and adults: initially rearing in ponds and feeding natural food before transferring to tanks reduces frequency of skeletal and other deformities compared to sole tank culture [3].

Adults: no data found yet on frequency of malformations under farming conditions.

For all age classes, no data found yet on frequency of malformations in the wild.


10. Is a humane slaughter protocol likely to be applied under minimal farming conditions? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

/
Likelihood
/
Potential
/
Certainty

Common slaughter method: no data found yet. High-standard slaughter method: no data found yet.


Side note: Domestication

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 [49] [50], level 5 being fully domesticated. Cultured since 1950 [51].


Side note: Feeding without components of forage fishery

Larvae: no data found yet on feed in the wild.

Juveniles: carnivorous and piscivorous, mainly zooplankton as juveniles, increasing proportion of fish with increasing age [30] [9] [15] [33]

Adults: carnivorous and piscivorous [30] [9] [15] [33].

For all age classes, no data found yet on replacement of fish meal and fish oil.

 


Glossary

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 = entire life cycle closed in captivity without wild inputs [49]


Bibliography

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