Short profile


FishEthoScore of the species

Abbreviated assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Criteria Li Po Ce
1 Home range ? ?
2 Depth range
3 Migration
4 Reproduction
5 Aggregation
6 Aggression
7 Substrate
8 Stress
9 Malformation
10 Slaughter
FishEthoScore 0 1 1
Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential overall potential of the individuals of the species to experience welfare under improved farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential
 
                    ?     /  
  High    Medium     Low     Unclear  No findings
 
FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)



General remarks

Rachycentron canadum is a migratory pelagic species widely distributed in subtropical, tropical, and temperate areas, except for the central and eastern Pacific. Several biological attributes make R. canadum a strong candidate for aquaculture, such as rapid growth, high fillet quality, and high market price. However, many aspects of welfare in rearing conditions have not been addressed yet. In order to optimise fish welfare of this species, improvements in current harvesting practices are needed to meet depth range needs, reproduction without manipulation, aggregation, aggression, and stress reduction.


1. Are minimal farming conditions likely to provide the home range of the species? Is there potential for improvement? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
?
Potential
M
Certainty

LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: circular tanks: 3.6 m diameter [1], 12 m3 [2]; ponds: <5,000 m2 [3].

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARMFINGERLINGS nursery ponds: >300 m2 [3], FINGERLINGS nursery nets: 600 m3 [4]; wooden cages: 3 x 3 m [5]; circular cages: 300-1,800 m3 (8-16 m diameter) [3] [5]; trapezoidal-octagon shaped cages: 20-30 m cross-section [4].

ADULTS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: tanks: 7.5 x 4.5 m [6], 60-80 m3 [1] [2]; ponds: 400-600 m2 [3] [5].


2. Are minimal farming conditions likely to provide the depth range of the species? Is there potential for improvement? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
H
Certainty

LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: tanks: 1-1.2 m [3] [1].

JUVENILES: WILD: PELAGIC [7], caught at 1.5-4.9 m [8], 5-6 m [9], 31-75 m [10]-[9], 21.6-72 m, up to 1,080 m [11]. FARM: sea cages: 3-15 m [3] [4] [5] at 27-30 m depth [4].

ADULTS: JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: PELAGIC [7]FARM: tanks: 1-1.5 m [6] [3] [12].


3. Are minimal farming conditions compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species? Is there potential for improvement? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

OCEANODROMOUS [13] [8] [7] [9] [14] [15] [16] [17]. EURYHALINE [4].

LARVAE: WILD: PELAGIC [7] [14] [15] [16]. Based on distribution in tropical, subtropical, and warm-tempered water [7] photoperiod ca 9-15 h; 18.8-28.8 °C [11], 28-32 °C [2], 20.1-30.0 °C [17], 28.4-34.3 psu [17]. FARM: tanks: 28.7-30.1 °C [1], 28-32 °C [2]. For details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILES: WILD: based on distribution in tropical, subtropical, and warm-tempered water [7] photoperiod ca 9-15 h; 18.8-28.8 °C [11], 28-32 °C [2], 20.1-30.0 °C [17], 28.4-34.3 psu [17]. In the western Atlantic, migrate inshore in May and leave in autumn to overwintering grounds [18] [9]. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.

ADULTS: ➝ JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: spawning in offshore waters [13] [19] [20] or inshore [13] [18] [17]. FARM: tanks: 24-30 °C [1], 24-26 °C [2]. For details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.


4. Is the species likely to reproduce in captivity without manipulation? Is there potential to allow for it under farming conditions? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

WILD: mature at 2-3 years [18] [9], spawn April-September [13] [18] [21] [9] [22] [17] possibly multiple times [18]. FARM: 1:2 female:male ratio [2]. Simulated natural photoperiod and temperature regime induces natural spawning [23] [6] [24] [2]. Hormonal stimulation to induce ovulation and spermiation [25] [23] [24]. Spawning tanks with egg collectors [23] [6] [24].


5. Is the aggregation imposed by minimal farming conditions likely to be compatible with the natural behaviour of the species? Is there potential to allow for it under farming conditions? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
L
Potential
M
Certainty

LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: intensive conditions RAS: 30-50 IND/L [5]; extensive conditions: 5-10 IND/L [1] [2].

JUVENILES: WILD: live solitary or in small groups of 3-4 [26] [7]. FARM: FINGERLINGS nursery nets: 13.3-23.3 IND/m3; grow-out cages: 2-3 kg/m3 [2], 2.9-5.2 IND/m3 [4]; offshore cages: 5-15 kg/m3 [3] [1].

ADULTS: JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: form spawning aggregations [18] [7] [17]. FARM: ponds: 100 IND/400-600 m2 [3]; tanks: 1-2 kg/m3 [1].


6. Is the species likely to be non-aggressive and non-territorial? Is there potential for improvement? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. Cannibalistic incidences in FARM [3] [27] [5] and LAB [1], but might be decreased via tank hydrodynamics [28].

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: aggressive feeders [29] [30] [31].

ADULTS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: aggressive feeders [32] [29], sometimes aggressive courtship [33] [12]


7. Are minimal farming conditions likely to match the natural substrate and shelter needs of the species? Is there potential for improvement? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
H
Potential
M
Certainty

Eggs and LARVAE: PELAGIC [7]. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILESWILD: often seen in the vicinity of buoys, fishing piers and over artificial reefs [9], caught over bottom with mud, rock, gravel, sand [11]. FARM:  LARVAE.

ADULTSWILD:  JUVENILES. FARM:  LARVAE.

SPAWNERSWILD:  LARVAE. FARM: tank covered 95% with cloth for shading [2]. For details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.


8. Are minimal farming conditions (handling, confinement etc.) likely not to stress the individuals of the species? Is there potential for improvement? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

LARVAE: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: stressed by low temperatures [3], air exposure [34] [35], water acidification [36] and during transport [3] [37].

ADULTS: stressed by low temperatures [3], air exposure [34] [35], water acidification [36], limited space [38] and during transport [3] [37].

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.


9. Are malformations of this species likely to be rare under farming conditions? Is there potential for improvement? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
L
Certainty

LARVAE: malformations of jaw [28]. Further research needed on frequency of malformations.

JUVENILES: malformations of jaw, operculum, and vertebral column [12] [39]. Further research needed on frequency of malformations.

ADULTS: malformations of jaw, operculum, vertebral column [12] [39], and gonads [40]. Further research needed on frequency of malformations.

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.


10. Is a humane slaughter protocol likely to be applied under minimal farming conditions? Is there potential for improvement? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

Common slaughter method: individually netted and bled [41]. High-standard slaughter method: fastest unconsciousness via electrical stunning [42] [43] [44], but contradictory findings [45]. Further research needed to confirm for farming conditions.


Side note: Domestication

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 [46], level 5 being fully domesticated.


Side note: Feeding without components of forage fishery

All age classes: WILD: carnivorous [9] [47]. FARM: fish meal and fish oil may be partly* replaced by non-forage fishery components [48] [49] [50] [51] [52].

*partly = <51% – mostly = 51-99% – completely = 100%


Glossary

ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 = entire life cycle closed in captivity without wild inputs [46]
EURYHALINE = tolerant of a wide range of salinities
FARM = setting in farm environment
FINGERLINGS = fry with fully developed scales and working fins, the size of a finger; for details Findings 10.1 Ontogentic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
OCEANODROMOUS = living and migrating in the sea
PELAGIC = living independent of bottom and shore of a body of water
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild


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