Summary


Salvelinus fontinalis is farmed not only for feeding purposes but also for recreational fishing, especially in North America. Considered invasive in several countries, where adverse ecological impact after introduction has been reported. Nevertheless, there are many biological and ethological aspects that are not respected in usual farming conditions. This species naturally swims long distances, which makes it challenging for rearing facilities to fulfill its spatial needs. Reproduction is induced through highly invasive techniques, and substrate needs are complex to assure in farms. In addition, there is a severe lack of knowledge concerning its biology, namely in aspects that are directly related to farming such as stress, malformation rates and sustainable feeds. Further research should be directed into these issues, as well as on manipulation (e.g. spawning, humane stunning and slaughtering protocols) and environmental enrichment. Selecting non-migratory strains for rearing could help to minimize harmful effects of confinement.