Summary


Scophthalmus maximus is a left-eyed flatfish of the family Scophtalmidae, a demersal predator, mainly in the area from the Black and Mediterranean Sea to the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea. S. maximus is a relatively scarce “gourmet” fish and is highly prized in the market. S. maximus farming started in the 1970s in the United Kingdom and subsequently established in France, Spain, and Portugal. In the beginning, the production was restricted by a limited juvenile supply, but technological developments since 2007 have led to an expansion in production. Only few findings are available on both natural behaviour and physiological effects of farming practices. They clearly demonstrate the importance of sandy substrate and low stocking densities to improve fish welfare.