Short profile


FishEthoScore of the species

Abbreviated assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Criteria Li Po Ce
1 Home range ? ?
2 Depth range ? ?
3 Migration
4 Reproduction
5 Aggregation ? ?
6 Aggression
7 Substrate
8 Stress ? ?
9 Malformation
10 Slaughter
FishEthoScore 1 1 0
Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential overall potential of the individuals of the species to experience welfare under improved farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential
 
                    ?     /  
  High    Medium     Low     Unclear  No findings
 
FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)



General remarks

Labeo catla is among the most cultured fishes in India, belonging to the Indian major carps together with Cirrhinus mrigala and L. rohita. The wild populations of this freshwater carp can be found in reservoirs and riverine areas in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma. Despite that, there is limited information about this species in natural conditions, especially about home range, depth range, substrate, and aggregation needs. L. catla is a surface feeder and is often raised in polyculture systems with other carps, presenting better performance when aggregated with species of different feeding habits. Structures such as bamboo poles can be used as periphyton substrate in these polycultures, but not for feeding L. catla but instead for feeding other carp species and thereby reducing competition for planktons. Although its entire life cycle is closed in captivity, it is necessary to induce the reproduction by hormonal manipulation. Moreover, there is no information about adults under farming conditions, probably because this species is sold before reaching maturity. It is a common practice in large farms that fishes are just washed thoroughly in water, packed with crushed ice at a ratio of 1:1 in rectangular plastic crates, and transported for long distances to be sold as fresh as possible. Thus, further research is needed on the stunning and slaughter process, besides the stress response of this species.


1. Are minimal farming conditions likely to provide the home range of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
?
Potential
M
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yet. FARM: reservoir cages: 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) [1]; cylindro-vertical fibre-reinforced plastic tanks after induced spawning: 1.4 m diameter [2]. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 100-1,000 m2 [3]; tanks: 1.4 m2 (1.2 x 1.2 m) [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: earthen ponds: 40 m(8 x 5 m) [4] [5], 75 m2 (7.5 x 10 m) [6] [7] [8], 120 m(15 x 8 m) [9], 100-680 m2 [7] [10] [11], 800 m2 (40 x 20 m) [12] [13] compartmentalised with nets into 100 m2 areas [12]; raceways: 102.1 m(6.7 x 15.2 m) [14]; rainwater reservoirs: 200 m2 (50 x 4 m) [15].

ADULTS: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: WILDno data found yet. FARM: ponds: 1,000 m2 (50 x 20 m) [2]; cylindro-vertical fibre-reinforced plastic tanks for induced spawning: 2.2 m diameter [2]; cemented cisterns: 2.4 m diameter [16]. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 20-30 m or 2,000-25,000 m2 [3]; storage tanks: 200 m2 (10 x 20 m), 450 m2 (15 x 30 m) [3]; breeding tanks: 3.8 m2 (2.5 x 1.5 m), 8 m2 (4 x 2 m), 18.8 m2 (7.5 x 2.5 m), 2 m diameter [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.


2. Are minimal farming conditions likely to provide the depth range of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
?
Potential
M
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: no data found yetFARM: natural lakes: 3-4 m [17]; reservoir cages: 2 m [1]; cylindro-vertical fibre-reinforced plastic tanks after induced spawning: 1 m [2]. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.5-1.2 m [3]; tanks: 1.2 m [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: natural lakes: 3-4 m [17]; ponds: 0.8-2.0 m [6] [12] [7] [8] [10] [13] [11] [4] [5] [9]; rainwater reservoirs: 1.0-1.8 m [15].

ADULTS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: natural lakes: 3-4 m [17]. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.8-2 m [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yetFARM: ponds: 1.5-2 m [2]; cylindro-vertical fibre-reinforced plastic tanks for induced spawning: 0.9 m [2]; separate cemented cisterns: 0.9 m [16]. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1.0-2.5 m or deeper depending on climate zone [3]; storage tanks: 1.0-1.5 m [3]; breeding tanks: 1 m [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.


3. Are minimal farming conditions compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS [18].

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: 10-14 h photoperiod, fresh water [19]FARM: natural lakes: 11-13 h photoperiod, 25-27 °C, fresh water [17]; ponds: range 18.6-33.3 °C, fresh water [2]; reservoirs: range 18-28 °C [1]LAB: individuals acclimated to 28 °C: cumulative mortality rates of 89-18% at 10-25 °C and all larvae die at 10 °C within 2 days [20]. For details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILES: WILD: 10-14 h photoperiod, fresh water [19]. Mainly site fidelity or migrating <1 km, some <2 km, a few <9 km up- and downstream during flood season including through sluice gates [18]. FARM: natural lakes: 11-13 h photoperiod, 25-27 °C, fresh water [17]; ponds: 25.8-29.4 °C [4] [5], range 17-28 °C [8], range 21-34 °C, fresh water [6] [12] [7] [10] [13] [11]; rainwater reservoirs: range 26.8-31.9 °C [15]. For details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.

ADULTSWILD: JUVENILESFARM: natural lakes: 11-13 h photoperiod, 25-27 °C, fresh water [17]. For details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.

SPAWNERS: WILD: LARVAE. FARM:  ADULTS.


4. Is the species likely to reproduce in captivity without manipulation? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
L
Potential
L
Certainty

WILD: mature at 2 years old [21] [22]. Spawn during monsoon in May-September depending on latitude [3] [19]. FARM: mature at 2 years old [23] [2]. Attempts to advance spawning by combination of above-average temperatures with long photoperiod and ovaprim injection to January-February (off-spawning season), sex ratio: 3 females:2 males [16]. Partial success of induced spawning with pituitary extract of Tachysurus thalassinus or T. jella followed by stripping at 1 female:1-2 males sex ratio [23]Induced spawning using gonadotropin releasing hormone at 1:1 sex ratio, but lower success, higher latency, lower fecundity, and lower hatching rate in pre-monsoon season [2]. For carps in general, in storage tanks, spawners are kept separated by sex [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.


5. Is the aggregation imposed by minimal farming conditions likely to be compatible with the natural behaviour of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
?
Potential
M
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yet. FARM: reservoir cages: varied individual densities in a polyculture with another carp species of overall density of 0.05-0.2 IND/L [1]. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1,000 IND/m2 for LARVAE in nursery ponds, 12.5-25 IND/m2 for FRY in breeding ponds [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.

JUVENILESWILD: no data found yet. FARM: ponds: 1.5 IND/m2, higher growth when stocked in polyculture with Labeo rohita at 20 L. catla:80 L. rohita than in monoculture, best ratio for both species: 40:60 [6]; 0.07-0.6 IND/m2 in polyculture with 1-6 other carp species of overall density of 0.7-1.2 IND/m[3] [12] [7] [8] [13] [4] [5] [9] [14]; 0.3-0.5 IND/min a polyculture with 2-3 other carps and 2 other small fish species of overall density of 3.5-4.2 IND/m2 [10] [11]. Rainwater reservoirs: better growth and survival at 0.2 than 0.3 IND/m2 in a polyculture with 2 other carp species of overall density of 0.5-0.8 IND/m2 than 1.1 IND/m2 [15]. For aggregation and stress crit. 8.

ADULTSWILD and FARMno data found yet.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: ponds: 0.1-0.3 kg/m2 [2] [3]; cemented cisterns: 3 IND/m3 [16]. For density and malformations crit. 9.


6. Is the species likely to be non-aggressive and non-territorial? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

H
Likelihood
H
Potential
L
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yet. FARM: no aggression reported in polyculture [1].

JUVENILESWILDno data found yet. FARM: no aggression reported in polycultures [3] [6] [12] [7] [8] [13] [4] [5] [9] [14], but growth of L. catla can be negatively affected, probably by competitive interactions for food [11].

ADULTSWILD and FARMno data found yet.

SPAWNERSWILD and FARMno data found yet.


7. Are minimal farming conditions likely to match the natural substrate and shelter needs of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

Eggs: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: for carps in general, double-walled hapa nets (e.g., mosquito netting and whole cloth) to protect from predators [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: natural lakes with algal bloom [17]. For details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: natural lakes with algal bloom [17]; ponds with turbid waters during monsoon (Secchi disc: 0.3 m) [11]; ponds: 2.4-10 vertically planted bamboo poles/m2 (1.8-2 m length, 1.5-5.6 cm diameter) [6] [7] [8] [4] [5], 0.2 m2 rice straw mats/m2 [4] [5], 0.07-0.3 kg sugarcane bagasse bundles/m2 (0.8 m length, 3.3 cm diameter) [12] or 0.05 m2 bamboo mats/m2 fixed with bamboo poles as periphyton substrate [13]

ADULTS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM:  LARVAE.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM:  LARVAE.


8. Are minimal farming conditions (handling, confinement etc.) likely not to stress the individuals of the species? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

?
Likelihood
?
Potential
L
Certainty

FRYFARM: stressed (to the point of mortality) by 6 h transport in plastic bags at 150-200 IND/L [24].

JUVENILESFARM: no data found yet. LAB: stressed (to the point of mortality) by high stocking density (25 g/L) [25].

ADULTS: FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: FARM: no data found yet.


9. Are malformations of this species likely to be rare under farming conditions? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
M
Certainty

Eggs: for Indian major carps including L. catla, eggs <2.4 mm diameter of pre-monsoon spawning resulted in undifferentiated cephalic mass in 60% [26].

LARVAE: for Indian major carps including L. catla, malformations in 0.5-1% during monsoon, 1-3% during pre-monsoon, 2-5% during post-monsoon: indeterminate embryonic mass, undifferentiated cephalic mass, unusual coelomic cavity and yolk sac, axial imparity (e.g., curvature of notochord, stump tail), microsomia, and combinations [26]. For carps in general, malformations due to insufficient nutrition [3]. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. catla as well.

JUVENILESno data found yet.

ADULTS: multiple morphological abnormalities probably due to pesticides in the water: vertebral deformities, abnormal height, abnormal disposition of fins, and malformations of body scales, lateral line and swim bladder [27].

SPAWNERS: underdeveloped gonads if >0.1 kg/m2, insufficient manuring, Zooplankton production, artificial feed [3].


10. Is a humane slaughter protocol likely to be applied under minimal farming conditions? What overall welfare potential can be achieved? How certain are these findings?

L
Likelihood
M
Potential
L
Certainty

Common slaughter method: asphyxia on ice [22]. High-standard slaughter method: no data found yet.


Side note: Domestication

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 [28], level 5 being fully domesticated.


Side note: Feeding without components of forage fishery

All age classes: WILD: probably omnivorous [3]. FARM: historically, mostly plant-based feed, but increase of fish meal and fish oil for growth benefits [3]. (The small part of) fish oil may be partly* replaced [29]; fish meal may be partly to mostly* replaced [14].

*partly = <51% – mostly = 51-99% – completely = 100%


Glossary

ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 = entire life cycle closed in captivity without wild inputs [28]
FARM = setting in farm environment
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild


Bibliography

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