Orangefin labeo

Labeo calbasu

Labeo calbasu (Orangefin labeo)
Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Cypriniformes
        • Cyprinidae
          • Labeo calbasu

Information


Author: Caroline Marques Maia
Version: 2.0 (2022-07-31)

Cite

Reviewers: Jenny Volstorf, María J. Cabrera-Álvarez
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

Cite as: »Marques Maia, Caroline. 2022. Labeo calbasu (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2022-07-31. Version 2.0. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Labeo calbasu
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Labeo calbasu is a freshwater fish species that naturally inhabits ponds, lakes, streams, reservoirs, and slow-moving waters of rivers of Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and South Western China in Asia. It is a cyprinid with a demersal habit that is important for commercial and recreational fisheries, with a high consumer preference and also being frequently used in game fishing in ponds and reservoirs. L. calbasu has a great resistance to diseases and is able to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, which are interesting characteristics for aquaculture. It can be cultivated with Indian major carps (Labeo catla, L. rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala) and exotic carps (e.g., Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio). L. calbasu is a seasonal breeder and spawns once per year in lotic environments. The populations of this cyprinid species are showing a declining trend in most of the water bodies, probably due to the introduction of exotic fishes, overexploitation and changes to its habitats such as pollution, siltation, and habitat loss. Considering the literature, mostly important wild information about this carp is still missing, especially about home range and depth range use, migratory behaviour, aggregation patterns and aggression. Moreover, further studies are needed to highlight relevant information about farming conditions of L. calbasu, such as malformation rates, stress response, compatibility with migration needs, and slaughtering protocols.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yet. FARM: concrete tanks: 50 m2 (10 x 5 m) 1. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 100-1,000 m2 2, tanks: 1.4 m2 (1.2 x 1.2 m) 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.

JUVENILESWILD: no data found yet. FARM: earthen ponds: 75 m2 (7.5 x 10 m) 3 4, 400 m2 (20 x 20 m) 5, 800 m2 (40 x 20 m) 6, 4,000 m7.

ADULTSWILD: no data found yet. FARM: earthen ponds: 4,000 m7.

SPAWNERSWILD: no data found yetFARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 20-30 m or 2,000-25,000 m2 2; storage tanks: 200 m2 (10 x 20 m), 450 m2 (15 x 30 m) 2; breeding tanks: 3.8 m2 (2.5 x 1.5 m), 8 m2 (4 x 2 m), 18.8 m2 (7.5 x 2.5 m), 2 m diameter 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: WILDno data found yet. FARM: bottle hatching jars: 0.7 m 8.

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yetFARM: concrete tanks: 1 m 1. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.5-1.2 m 2, tanks: 1.2 m 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.

JUVENILESWILD: DEMERSAL 9, bottom feeder 10 11 12 13. Lake: range 4.8-18.4 m 14 with unclear depth range use. 0.2-0.5 m 15, 10 m 16-9. FARM: earthen ponds: 1.5 m 3 4 17 5LAB: benthic habit (bottom feeders) 18 19.

ADULTSWILDDEMERSAL 9, bottom feeder 10 11 12 13. Lake: range 4.8-18.4 m 14 with unclear depth range use. 0-3.8 m 20 1510 m 16-9. FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.8-2 m 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.

SPAWNERS WILD: no data found yetFARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 1.0-2.5 m or deeper depending on climate zone 2; storage tanks: 1.0-1.5 m 2; breeding tanks: 1 m 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 21.

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yetFARM: concrete tanks: 30.9-31.1 °C 1. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILESWILD: 10-14 h PHOTOPERIOD, range 20-31 °C and mean 25.5-27.1 °C 14, fresh water 22 9FARM: earthen ponds: 21-33 °C 3 4 17 7 5. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

ADULTSWILD:  JUVENILES. FARM: earthen ponds: 22.5-33 °C 7. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

SPAWNERSWILD: no data found yetFARM: earthen ponds: 29.3 °C 8. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: mature at 2 years old 23 24 25. Spawn once per year 10 during the monsoon (rainy season) 24 10, between May-August 23 26-27 with a peak between June-July 28. Sex ratio: 1:1, small differences towards more females or more males may occur depending on age group 11FARM: the induced breeding technique has been available for a long time 29; successful induced breeding 1 by hormonal injections 10 8 followed by stripping 8. Breeding techniques induce spawning twice or three times per breeding season 10. For carps in general, in storage tanks, spawners are kept separated by sex 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yetFARM: concrete tanks: better growth and survival at 500 than 1,500 IND/m2 1. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1,000 IND/m2 for LARVAE in nursery ponds, 12.5-25 IND/m2 for FRY in breeding ponds 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.

JUVENILESWILD: no data found yetFARM: earthen ponds: 1 IND/m2 3; 0.1-0.3 IND/m2 in polyculture with 3-4 other cyprinids of overall density of 0.5-0.8 IND/m2 17 5, better growth at 0.2 than 0.3-0.5 IND/m2 in a polyculture with 2 other carp species of overall density of 1.2-1.5 IND/m2 4LAB: schooling behaviour 18.

ADULTSWILD and FARMno data found yet.

SPAWNERSWILD: no data found yetFARM: earthen ponds: 0.2 IND/m2 8.




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYFARM: no data found yet.

JUVENILESFARM: no aggression reported in polycultures with other cyprinids 7, as Labeo catla 4 17, Labeo rohita 4 17Cirrhinus mrigala 17 and Barbonymus gonionotus 5, but competition is suspected to reduce growth 4 10LAB: intraspecific competition in monoculture and interspecific competition in polyculture with C. mrigala, but no aggression is mentioned (better competitor than C. mrigala18 19.

ADULTSFARM: no aggression reported in polycultures with other carps 7, but competition with other species (including Cirrhinus mrigala) 10.

SPAWNERSWILD and FARMno data found yet.




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: WILD: no data found yetFARM: for carps in general, double-walled hapa nets (e.g., mosquito netting and whole cloth) to protect from predators 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well. For details of holding systems  crit. 2.

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yetFARM: concrete tanks: 10 cm of soil base 1. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILESWILD: DEMERSAL 9 and bottom feeder 10 11 12 13. Prefer rocky substrate, feeding on periphytic filamentous algae and diatoms 30. Found in river with bedrock, but also boulders, gravel, leaf litter 15. FARM: earthen ponds: 0.05-0.1 bamboo mats/m2 (1 x 1 m) 5 or 0.03 bamboo mats/m2 (2 x 1 m) 17 made of bamboo stripes and fixed with bamboo poles as periphyton substrate to feed on 17 5; 9.0-9.3 vertically planted bamboo poles/m2 (1.6-2 m length, 0.8-5.5 cm ∅) as periphyton substrate and suggested to work as shelter or protection from predators 3 4. Earthen ponds: Secchi disc: 14-48 cm 3 4. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2. LABBENTHIC (bottom feeders) 18 19; perspex slides to collect periphyton to feed on, better growth at ≥400 than 100 cm2 perspex slides/aquarium 31 32

ADULTSWILD: JUVENILES. FARM: for details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

SPAWNERSWILD: no data found yetFARM: ADULTS.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: stressed by acidic water (pH  5.5) 33 34, which can be caused by manures and inorganic fertilisers 33. Extracts in the diet (≥0.1% of Eclipta Alba ethanol 33 or 0.5% of Cynodon dactylon methanol 34) reduced stress levels – also higher levels caused by acidic water.

ADULTSno data found yet.

SPAWNERSno data found yet.




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: for carps in general, malformations due to insufficient nutrition 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.

JUVENILES: no data found yet.

ADULTSno data found yet.

SPAWNERSno data found yet




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common slaughter method: for Cirrhinus mrigala 35, Labeo catla 36, L. rohita 37, with which L. calbasu is commonly reared, asphyxia on ice. For the related Cyprinus carpio, a) asphyxia (followed by percussion) 38 39, b) percussion, c) electrical stunning 38 40. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well. High-standard slaughter method: for C. carpio, percussive plus electrical stunning or immersion in clove oil 39 40. Further research needed for a specific protocol and to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 2 41, level 5 being fully domesticated.




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes: WILD: herbivorous 10 11 12 16-9 42-9, detritivore 12, also reported as omnivorous 8, feeding mainly on decayed organic matter, aquatic plants and algae 10 12, and zooplankton 10FARM: fed with sustainable sources 3 17 7 5, at times complemented with periphyton 3 17 5. LAB: fed on periphyton 31 32; fed on plankton when housed alone, but benthic macroinvertebrate consumption increased when housed with C. cirrhosus 18 19




Glossary


LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
WILD = setting in the wild
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
DEMERSAL = living and feeding on or near the bottom of a body of water, mostly benthopelagic, some benthic
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
IND = individuals
BENTHIC = living at the bottom of a body of water, able to rest on the floor
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 2 = part of the life cycle closed in captivity, also known as capture-based aquaculture 41



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