Tinfoil barb

Barbonymus schwanenfeldii

Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Tinfoil barb)
Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Cypriniformes
        • Cyprinidae
          • Barbonymus schwanenfeldii

Information


Author: Caroline Marques Maia
Version: 2.0 (2022-08-17)

Please note: This part of the profile is currently being revised.

Cite

Reviewers: N/A
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

Cite as: »Marques Maia, Caroline. 2022. Barbonymus schwanenfeldii (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2022-08-17. Version 2.0. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Barbonymus schwanenfeldii
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Barbonymus schwanenfeldii is a freshwater fish naturally inhabiting Mekong and Chao Phraya basins besides Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo in Asia, but it was already introduced in the south-east of the USA, Philippines, Indonesia, and Ivory Coast. It is a tropical BENTHOPELAGIC barb that can be found in streams, canals, ditches, flooded fields, lakes, and especially in medium- to large-sized rivers. B. schwanenfeldii is considered omnivorous, but mainly herbivorous. It is commercially important for the ornamental fish trade and occasionally used as bait. It is a promising species for aquaculture due to its good meat taste and low trophic level. However, this barb apparently is not much domesticated yet: ADULTS are taken from the wild to become SPAWNERS, for example. Besides that, further research about important wild information of this fish is still missing, especially about home range, aggregation densities, reproduction, and substrate use. Relevant information to better assess farming conditions of this barb is also missing, especially about its stress response and malformation rates in captivity. A humane slaughter protocol still remains to be established. Together, this missing data makes it difficult to assess and improve the welfare conditions of B. schwanenfeldii.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYWILD: man-made lake: 64.8 km2 1 2 with unclear home range use. FARM: aquarium: 0.1 m(0.4 x 0.3 m) 3; concrete ponds: 10 m(2 x 5 m) 4; earthen ponds: 20 m2 (5 x 4 m) 4; cages: 0.3 m2 (0.5 x 0.5 m) 5, 4 m(2 x 2 m) 4. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 100-1,000 m2 6, tanks: 1.4 m2 (1.2 x 1.2 m) 6. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well.

JUVENILESWILD:  LARVAE and FRYFARM: cages: 0.3 m2 (0.5 x 0.5 m) 7, 1.5-5.2 m2 (1.5 x 1 m, 2.6 x 2 m) 8; plastic boxes: 3.1 m2 (2 m ∅) 9.

ADULTSWILD LARVAE and FRYFARMno data found yet.

SPAWNERSWILD:  LARVAE and FRY. FARM: spawning aquarium: 0.5 m2 (1 x 0.5 m) 3. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 20-30 m or 2,000-25,000 m2 6; storage tanks: 200 m2 (10 x 20 m), 450 m2 (15 x 30 m) 6; breeding tanks: 3.8 m2 (2.5 x 1.5 m), 8 m(4 x 2 m), 18.8 m2 (7.5 x 2.5 m), 2 m diameter 6. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well.




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: WILD: semi-buoyant 10FARM: plastic bowls: 2 cm 3.

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: man-made lake: max 97.5 m, mean: 16 m 2 with unclear depth range use. FARM: aquarium: 0.1 m 3; concrete ponds, earthen ponds, cages: 1 m 4 5. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.5-1.2 m 6, tanks: 1.2 m 6. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well.

JUVENILESWILD: BENTHOPELAGIC 11, bottom habit 12. Man-made lake: max 97.5 m, mean: 16 m 2 with unclear depth range use. FARM: cages: 1 m 8 7; plastic boxes: 1 m 9.

ADULTS:  WILDBENTHOPELAGIC 11, bottom habit 12. Lake: caught in 2 m (lake depth: 3.1-4.3 m) 13. Man-made lake: max 97.5 m, mean: 16 m 2 with unclear depth range use. FARM: for carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.8-2 m 6. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well.

SPAWNERSWILD LARVAE and FRYFARM: spawning aquarium: 0.5 cm 3. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1.0-2.5 m or deeper depending on climate zone 6; storage tanks: 1.0-1.5 m 6; breeding tanks: 1 m 6. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a high amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 14 15.

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: 11-13 PHOTOPERIOD 16 2 11 13, range 22-40 °C 17-11 14 2 13, mean 26.8-30 °C 14, fresh water 18 11 13, transparency range 0.2-3.5 m 14 2, mean 0.3-0.7 m 14, 257.28-268.11 NTU 13. Remain in rivers until they become FINGERLINGS, then migrate to other parts of the lake 2, congregating in flooded forest, grassland, lakes 14. FARM: aquarium: 25-28 °C 3; cages: 23.7 °C 19.

JUVENILESWILD: 11-13 PHOTOPERIOD 16 1 2 11 13, 22-34 °C 17-11 2 12 13, fresh water 1 18 11 13, transparency 3.5 m 2, 257.28-268.11 NTU 13. Non-native waters: 9-15 h PHOTOPERIOD 20, fresh water 20. Young JUVENILES: range 25.3-40 °C, mean 26.8-30 °C 14, transparency range 0.2-2 m, mean 0.3-0.7 m 14; congregate in flooded forest, grassland, lakes 14FARM: floating cages: range 20.4-31.3 °C 8 7, mean 27 °C 8, transparency range 0.1-0.8 m, mean 0.2 m 8. Plastic boxes: 24.3-26.9 °C 9.

ADULTSWILD: 11-13 PHOTOPERIOD 16 1 2 11 13, range 22-34 °C 17-11 14 2 12 13, mean 27-27.7 °C 14, fresh water 1 18 11 13, transparency range 0.1-3.5 m 14 2, mean 0.2-0.3 m 14, 257.28-268.11 NTU 13. FARM: ponds: 27.1-27.5 °C 4 (for wild-caught ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).

SPAWNERSWILD: 11-13 PHOTOPERIOD 16 2 11 13, range 22-34 °C 17-11 14 2 3 13, mean 27-27.7 °C 14, fresh water 18 11 13, transparency range 0.1-3.5 m 14 2, mean 0.2-0.3 m 14, 257.28-268.11 NTU 13. Upriver spawning migrations during the rainy season 14 2. FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. Ponds (during spawning): 25 °C 4.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: spawning is triggered by rainfall periods (water level increasing) 2. Can spawn 2-3 times/year 16 2 (March and October 2), but spawns continuously 14 16 when there is no seasonal flooding 16FARM: ADULTS are taken from the wild, mature at >1.5 years old 4. SPAWNERS are kept separated by sex 4, spawn in rainy season (October-November) 4. Sex ratio: 1:1 3 4. Cannulation method used to evaluate gonadal maturation 3 4. Succesful induced spawning by hormonal manipulation 3 4 followed by stripping males and females and artificially mixing eggs and sperm 4. LAB: sex ratio 1:1 10. Cannot breed naturally under captive conditions 10. Intraovarian biopsy to select mature females 10. Successful induced spawning by hormonal manipulation followed by stripping females 10.




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

It is high for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: schooling 21-20FARM: aquarium: 0.2 IND/cm2 3; concrete ponds, earthen ponds, net cages: 13 IND/m2 4, 0.2 IND/L or 40 IND/m2 in polyculture with Oreochromis niloticus of overall density of 0.6 IND/L or 150 IND/m2 5 19. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1,000 IND/m2 for LARVAE in nursery ponds, 12.5-25 IND/m2 for FRY in breeding ponds 6. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well.

JUVENILESWILD LARVAE and FRYFARM: floating cages: 0.12-0.14 IND/L 8, 240 IND/m7, 80-160 IND/m2 in polyculture with O. niloticus of overall density of 240 IND/m7. Plastic boxes: 0.1 IND/L 9.

ADULTSWILD LARVAE and FRYFARM: ponds: 2-5 IND/m(males and females in separate ponds) 4 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).

SPAWNERSWILD:  LARVAE and FRYFARM:  for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. Ponds: kept in pairs for spawning 4.




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

It is high for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: no aggression and no competition reported in polyculture with O. niloticus 5 19.

JUVENILES: no aggression reported in polyculture with O. niloticus and low or no competition 7.

ADULTS: no data found yet.

SPAWNERSno data found yet.




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: WILD: lake: no submerged or floating vegetation 13FARM: plastic bowl 3, probably without substrate. For carps in general, double-walled hapa nets (e.g., mosquito netting and whole cloth) to protect from predators 6. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well. 

LARVAE and FRYWILD: Eggs. FARM: cages: submerged water plant (Hydrilla verticillata5.

JUVENILESWILD:  Eggs. FARM: cages: bundles of leaves added 8, high density of sinking water plants like Hydrilla verticillata 7.

ADULTSWILD: lake: no submerged or floating vegetation 13, increased density with increasing phytoplankton density 13. FARMno data found yet.

SPAWNERSWILD Eggs. FARMno data found yet.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYno data found yet.

JUVENILESno data found yet.

ADULTSno data found yet.

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: for carps in general, malformations due to insufficient nutrition 6. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well.

JUVENILES: no data found yet.

ADULTSno data found yet.




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common slaughter method: commonly sold fresh 22-11, so probably asphyxia. High-standard slaughter method: for the related C. carpio, electrical plus percussive stunning (followed by evisceration, gill cut or destruction of the heart) 23 or immersion in clove oil (followed by percussive killing 24). Further research needed for a specific protocol and to determine whether this applies to B. schwanenfeldii as well.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 25, level 5 being fully domesticated.




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes: WILD: omnivorours 26 27 28-20 22-11 11 – mainly herbivorous 22-11, being considered detritivorous 26 28-20FARM: feed on cassava and Passiflora leaves efficiently, but better growth with commercial feed 8. High protein diet (32%) is better for growth 9LAB: high protein diet (32%) is better for growth 18.




Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
BENTHOPELAGIC = living and feeding near the bottom of a body of water, floating above the floor
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 = entire life cycle closed in captivity with wild inputs 25
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
FINGERLINGS = early juveniles with fully developed scales and working fins, the size of a human finger; for details Findings 10.1 Ontogentic development
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
NTU = Nephelometric Turbidity Units
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild



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