Pengba

Osteobrama belangeri

Osteobrama belangeri (Pengba)
Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Cypriniformes
        • Cyprinidae
          • Osteobrama belangeri

Information


Author: Caroline Marques Maia
Version: 2.0 (2022-08-15)

Please note: This part of the profile is currently being revised.

Cite

Reviewers: N/A
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

Cite as: »Marques Maia, Caroline. 2022. Osteobrama belangeri (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2022-08-15. Version 2.0. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Osteobrama belangeri
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Osteobrama belangeri is a medium size freshwater, benthopelagic, and tropical cyprinid fish that naturally inhabits rivers and lakes in India, Myanmar, and China. The natural populations are declining mainly due to habitat degradation, pollution, hydroelectric power projects, construction of dams, overexplotation, and introduction of non-native fish species, especially Cyprinus carpio. This has resulted in O. belangeri being listed as one of the endangered fish species of India and as near threatened by IUCN. It has lower growth potential compared to the Indian major carps (Labeo catla, L. rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala), and its growth and survival has been far from satisfactory in farms. Moreover, O. belangeri is vulnerable to stress and diseases. Despite that, it can be considered as a potential species for diversification of carp culture as well as being a highly priced fish with a great demand due to its association with the cultural heritage in some regions and its unique taste. This cyprinid is normally kept in polycultures with other carps. As O. belangeri is mainly herbivorous, it can replace Ctenopharyngodon idella in such polycultures. The grow-out phase has been confined mainly to earthen ponds, and it is probably harvested while still a juvenile. Despite its potential for carp culture, its domestication is just beginning, and most important wild information is still missing for this species. Moreover, essential information about specific stress responses, malformations and stunning/slaughtering protocols under farm conditions is also missing. Thus, it is still a challenge to assess the welfare conditions of this cyprinid in captivity.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yetFARM: FRY ponds: 200-1,000 m2 1, 400 m2 (20 x 20 m) 2; outdoor concrete tanks: 50 m2 (10 x 5 m) 3; outdoor fibre-reinforced plastic tanks: 50 L 4. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 100-1,000 m2 5, tanks: 1.4 m2 (1.2 x 1.2 m) 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. belangeri as well.

JUVENILESWILD: lake: 287 km2 6 with unclear home range use. FARM: ponds: 20,234-40,468 m2 7, 400 m2 (20 x 20 m) 2, 800 m2 8 9; net pens: 1,000 m2 (31.62 x 31.62  m) 10.

ADULTSWILD:  JUVENILESFARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS: ponds: 200 m2 1, 400 m2 (20 x 20 m) 2, for wild-caught ADULTS: 200-1,200  m2 11 12

SPAWNERSWILDno data found yet. FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. Hapa nets: 3.75 m2 (1.5 x 2.5 m) 11 2, 4 m2 (2 x 2 m 13, 6 m2 (3 x 2 m) 14, 7.5 m2 (3 x 2.5 m) 1  12. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 20-30 m or 2,000-25,000 m2 5; storage tanks: 200 m2 (10 x 20 m), 450 m2 (15 x 30 m) 5; breeding tanks: 3.8 m2 (2.5 x 1.5 m), 8 m2 (4 x 2 m), 18.8 m2 (7.5 x 2.5 m), 2 m diameter 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. belangeri as well.




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: WILD: no data found yetFARM: DEMERSAL 11 1 12.

LARVAE and FRYWILD: no data found yetFARMFRY: ponds: 1.5 m 2; outdoor concrete tanks: 0.9 m 3. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.5-1.2 m 5; tanks: 1.2 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. belangeri as well.

JUVENILESWILDBENTHOPELAGIC 15FARM: ponds: 1.5-2 m 2 16 9.

ADULTSWILD JUVENILESFARM: ponds: 1.5 m 2. For ADULTS to become SPAWNERS: ponds: 1.2-1.3 m 1, for wild-caught ADULTS: 1.2-1.5 m 11 12. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.8-2 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. belangeri as well.

SPAWNERSWILD: no data found yetFARM:  for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. Hapa nets: 1-3 m 13 11 14 1 12 2. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1.0-2.5 m or deeper depending on climate zone 5; storage tanks: 1.0-1.5 m 5; breeding tanks: 1 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. belangeri as well.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a high amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 11 2 10.

LARVAE and FRY: 11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD 6, fresh water 6 15FARMLARVAE: nylon hapas: 28 °C, fresh water 11. For details of holding systems ➝ crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILESWILD:  11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD 13 17 6, fresh water 6 15. Lake: means of 14 °C during winter and 24 °C during summer 18FARM: 11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD 10 9, fresh water 8 10 9; ponds: 27.6-33.3 °C 8 9; net pens: 23.8-28 °C 10. For details of holding systems ➝ crit. 1 and 2.

ADULTSWILD JUVENILES. FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS: 11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD, fresh water 13, for wild-caught ADULTS: 11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD, fresh water 11, ponds: 28.2-28.5 °C 11 12. For details of holding systems ➝ crit. 1 and 2.

SPAWNERSWILD: 11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD 6, fresh water 6 15. Migrates upstream for breeding in flood plains in early monsoon 11 2 10. FARM: for  ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. Fresh water, hapa nets: 25.3-30 °C at spawning 11 14 12 2. For details of holding systems ➝ crit. 1 and 2.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a high amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: spawning during early monsoon 11 2 10, June-August 2 19FARM: separated by sex in earthen ponds 14. Maturity around 2-2.5 years old 14 2 9 – including wild-caught ADULTS 11 12 – male earlier than female 2. Sex ratio: 2 males:1 female 13 11 1 12 2, 3 males:2 females 14, 4 males:3 females 20-19. Elaborate courtship: chasing behaviour 11, male and female rubbing their bodies together 1 or male rubbed his body against the female 11 12 leading to the release of gametes and external fertilisation 11 1 12. Successful induced spawning by hormonal manipulation 13 11 14 1 2 21. Apparently unable to spawn without hormonal induction in captivity 11 12




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: no data found yetFARM: FRY: 300-1,000 IND/m2, but 1,000-2,000 IND/m2 can be used in well-managed ponds with good water circulation 1; outdoor concrete tanks: 0.02-0.05 IND/L (better growth and survival at the lowest density) 3; outdoor fibre-reinforced plastic tanks: 2 IND/L 4. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1,000 IND/m2 for LARVAE in nursery ponds, 12.5-25 IND/m2 for FRY in breeding ponds 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. belangeri as well.

JUVENILESWILD: no data found yetFARM: ponds: 1.3 IND/m2 2, 0.4-1.5 IND/m2 overall density in polycultures with other carp species 1 16 19 7, 0.07-0.3 IND/min polyculture with 1-3 other carps of overall density of 0.6-0.8 IND/m2 8 9 (better growth and survival at the lowest density) 9. Net pens: 0.5 IND/m2 of O. belangeri and Ctenopharyngodon idella in polyculture with 5 other carps of overall density of 5 IND/m10

ADULTSWILDno data found yetFARM: ponds: 1.3 IND/m2 2. 0.1 IND/m2 12 (for wild-caught ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).

SPAWNERSWILDno data found yet. FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS.




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: WILDno data found yet. FARM: no aggression reported 1 10 7 in polyculture with carps (Labeo rohita, L. catla, Cirrhinus mrigala 1 10 7, and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 1 10, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio 10), but possible competition with L. rohita 9.

ADULTSWILD and FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERSWILD and FARM: no data found yet.




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: WILD: lake: silt and clay at the bottom 22-6FARM: plastic buckets 2, incubation pools 14 or double walled hapas 13, probably without substrate. For details of holding systems ➝ crit. 1 and 2.

LARVAE and FRYWILD Eggs. FARMLARVAE: incubation pools 14, fibre-reinforced plastic tanks 11 12, nylon hapa and plastic troughs 11 12, probably without substrate. FRY: cemented ponds 14 or nursery tanks 11, probably without substrate; outdoor concrete tanks: Secchi disc: 0.2-0.6 m 3. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILESWILD Eggs. FARM: ponds: Secchi disc: 0.2-0.9 m 8 9; net pens: submerged aquatic macrophytes 10, Secchi disc: 0.9-1 m 10. For details of holding systems ➝ crit. 1 and 2.

ADULTSWILD Eggs. FARM: for details of holding systems ➝ crit. 1 and 2.

SPAWNERSWILD:  Eggs. FARM: ADULTS.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: no data found yet.

JUVENILESno data found yet.

ADULTSno data found yet.

SPAWNERSno data found yet.




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: for carps in general, malformations due to insufficient nutrition 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. belangeri as well.

JUVENILESno data found yet.

ADULTSno data found yet.




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common slaughter method: for Cirrhinus mrigala 23, Labeo catla 24, L. rohita 25, with which O. belangeri is commonly reared, asphyxia on ice. For the related Cyprinus carpio, 85% are sold alive, of the 15% processed in plants 26, the common methods are a) asphyxia (followed by evisceration 26 or percussive killing 27), b) percussive stunning (followed by evisceration 26 28, gill cut or destruction of the heart 28), and c) electrical stunning (followed by evisceration 26 28, gill cut or destruction of the heart 28). Further research needed to determine whether this applies to L. calbasu as well. High-standard slaughter method: for C. carpio, electrical plus percussive stunning (followed by evisceration, gill cut or destruction of the heart) 28 or immersion in clove oil (followed by percussive killing 27). Further research needed for a specific protocol and to determine whether this applies to O. belangeri as well.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 1 29, level 5 being fully domesticated.




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

WILD: mainly herbivorous 11 2 16 30 10 7 31 – especially as ADULTS 32 – but also classified as omnivorous 32 30 17 31FARM: supplementary feed with more sustainable sources is possible 11 1 12 16 33 7LAB: not necessary to feed FRY with fish meal 34 or fish oil 35 as protein source, with even a better growth and survival performance with more sustainable sources instead of fish oil 35. High protein (40-45%) diet is needed for better growth and survival of FRY 36 34, but 25% of protein is better for JUVENILES 30 31.




Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
BENTHOPELAGIC = living and feeding near the bottom of a body of water, floating above the floor
DEMERSAL = living and feeding on or near the bottom of a body of water, mostly benthopelagic, some benthic
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 1 = first trials of acclimatisation to the culture environment 29
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild



Bibliography


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