Chinese longsnout catfish

Tachysurus dumerili

Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Siluriformes
        • Bagridae
          • Tachysurus dumerili

Information


Author: María J. Cabrera-Álvarez
Version: 2.0 (2022-09-21)

Please note: This part of the profile is currently being revised.

Cite

Reviewers: N/A
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

Cite as: »Cabrera-Álvarez, María J.. 2022. Tachysurus dumerili (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2022-09-21. Version 2.0. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Tachysurus dumerili
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Tachysurus dumerili is a demersal and nocturnal catfish species that lives in rivers of eastern China and western Korea. Culture of T. dumerili became popular in China due to its high market value and a rapid declining of the natural population, affected by overfishing, environmental pollution, and habitat fragmentation. Efforts have been put in researching nutritional parameters and genetics of T. dumerili. However, there is a reported lack of data on broodstock management, captive breeding, and larval rearing techniques. Additionally, there is a lack of English literature on T. dumerili's natural habitat and behaviour in the wild. T. dumerili is very aggressive while in captivity and has been reported to be stressed by handling, which are unfavourable welfare parameters for cultivated species. The most probable slaughter technique used for T. dumerili is ice slurry. Therefore, an alternative high-standard slaughter method needs to be researched for this species.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD and FARM: no data found yet. LAB: glass tanks: 0.2 m2 (0.6 x 0.4 m) 1; fibreglass tanks: 0.5 m ∅ 1.

JUVENILES: WILDno data found yet. FARM: cages in reservoir 2 3 (possibly multi-layered cage) 4, net cages 5, ponds 2 5 6. LAB: net cages: 20 m2 (5 x 4 m) 7 8 9; flow-through fibreglass tanks: 0.6 m3 (0.7 m ∅, 150 L) 10 11, 0.1 m3 (0.6 m ∅, 120 L) 12; polythene tanks: 1.3 m2 (0.6 x 0.5 m, 140 L) 13.

ADULTS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD and FARM: no data found yet. LAB: glass tanks: 0.5 m 1; fibreglass tanks: 0.4 m 1.

JUVENILES: WILD: DEMERSAL 14 or BENTHIC 15. River bays with deep waters 14. Overwinter in deep waters 14. FARM: no data found yet. LAB: net cages: 2.5 m 7 8, 3 m 9; flow-through fibreglass tanks: 1.5 m 11, 0.4 m 12; polythene tanks: 0.5 m 13.

ADULTS: WILD JUVENILES. FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Possibly POTAMODROMOUS 16-17 18, but also considered resident 15.

LARVAE and FRY: WILD and FARM: no data found yet. LAB: 13 h PHOTOPERIOD, lighting period 08:00-21:00 h 1, 24.9 °C.

JUVENILES: WILD: semi-migratory 16-17, possibly occasional migrations 18. Nocturnal feeder 14, rest or hide during the day 14. FARM: no data found yet. LAB: 12 h PHOTOPERIOD, lighting period 08:00-20:00 h 10 19 11 13 20, 29 °C 10 19 12, 25 °C 20.

ADULTS: WILD JUVENILES. FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: WILD: migrate to spawning area in March-April and return to regular area in August 21. FARM: no data found yet.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: mature after 3 years 22 23 or 3-5 years 16 at 45.5-55.5 cm 16, highest spawning power at 4-5 years 16. Breed in April-June 22 23 21. One spawning per year 16 22 . FARM: artificial reproduction 24. Lack of data on captive breeding 25.




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD and FARM: no data found yet. LAB: glass tanks: 2,083 IND/m3 1; fibreglass tank: 3,125 IND/m3 1.

JUVENILES: WILDno data found yet. FARM: mean yield for Chinese cages: 300 kg/m3 26-3. LAB: net cages: 45 IND/m2 7, 50 IND/m2 8, 60 /m2 9; fibreglass tanks: 80 IND/m3 10; polythene tanks: IND/m3 13.

ADULTS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRYFARM: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: FARM: cannibalism 12 11 at 186 IND/m3 13, biting of tail and fins 12 13. Darker skin colour than in the wild 13 20 which could be related to hierarchy or aggression 27. LAB: territoriality 13; 80 IND/m3 prevents cannibalism 10.

ADULTS: FARM: darker skin colour than in the wild 13 which could be related to hierarchy or aggression 27. LAB: territoriality 13.

SPAWNERS: FARM: no data found yet.




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: river bed of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, with high-nutrient soils 28 and rocks 14. FARM: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: WILD: river bed of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, with high-nutrient soils 28 and rocks 14. Heavy use of substrate during the day 14. Hide in rock crevices during the day 14. Overwinter in gravel crevices 14. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1. LAB: reared with aquatic plants at net cage area:aquatic plant area 1:32-35 7 or 1:17 8 or 1:24.6 9 depending on plant species.

ADULTS: WILD: JUVENILES. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1.

SPAWNERS: WILD: LARVAE and FRY. FARM: no data found yet.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: sensitive to environmental conditions 25. Stressed by handling (netting and 60s out of water) 11 and chronic ammonia exposure 11. For stress and aggression crit. 6.

ADULTS: sensitive to environmental conditions 25. For stress and aggression crit. 6.

SPAWNERS:  ADULTS.




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: FARM: high mortality during weaning phase 1.

JUVENILES: FARM: no data found yet. LAB: spine malformations when fed high carbohydrate:lipid ratios 29.

ADULTS: FARM: no data found yet.




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common slaughter method: FARM: immersion in ice slurry 5. LAB: blow to the head 29. High-standard slaughter method: FARM: for the related Clarias gariepinus, a) stunning with captive pistol (8 bar pressure) and chilling in icewater 30, b) dry electro-stunning (0.76 A, 150 V, AC+DC for 15 s) followed by chilling and decapitation 31 or c) freshwater electro-stunning (1.60 ± 0.11 A/dm2, 50 Hz, sinusoidal, A.C., conductivity of 876 μS) followed by chilling and decapitation 32. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to T. dumerili as well.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 33, level 5 being fully domesticated.




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes: WILD: piscivorous 16 28 14 23, insectivorous 14 23, crustaceans 16 14 23, molluscs 14, over 40 types of preys 16. FARM: fish meal may be not replaced 2 and fish oil may be completely* replaced by sustainable sources 34, but no data found yet for ADULTS and SPAWNERS.

partly = <51% – mostly = 51-99% – completely = 100%




Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
BENTHIC = living at the bottom of a body of water, able to rest on the floor
DEMERSAL = living and feeding on or near the bottom of a body of water, mostly benthopelagic, some benthic
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 = entire life cycle closed in captivity with wild inputs 33
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild



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