Mud carp

Cirrhinus molitorella

Cirrhinus molitorella (Mud carp)
Distribution
near threatened



Information


Author: Caroline Marques Maia
Version: 2.0 (2022-11-24)

Please note: This part of the profile is currently being revised.


Reviewers: N/A
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

Cite as: »Marques Maia, Caroline. 2022. Cirrhinus molitorella (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2022-11-24. Version 2.0. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Cirrhinus molitorella
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Cirrhinus molitorella is a freshwater cyprinid fish that naturally inhabits Asia waters at Mekong, Chao Phraya, Nam Theun, Xe Bangfai, the Nanpangjiang basins and also from the Red River in China and Viet Nam and Pearl River in China. It is found from midwater to bottom depths of lakes, reservoirs, and large and medium-sized rivers, occurring in rapids and slow deep reaches, thus preferring flowing water. This cyprinid makes a low mating call, with many bubbles coming up to the water surface when breeding. Because of anthropogenic disturbances such as the construction of dams, overfishing, and water pollution, the abundance and distribution range of this carp has declined. C. molitorella began to be cultured much later than Cyprinus carpio. It has been introduced to several countries, including Indonesia, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan Province of China, and Hong Kong SAR. Although this species grows slowly and does not reach a large size as other carps and although it is difficult to harvest without draining, there are some advantages to rearing it: It can be reared in high density, its production rate is high, and it has good meat quality and high nutritional value, making it one of the most important species cultured in inland water bodies in southern China. Important wild information about depth range, migratory behaviours, and especially about home range and aggregation patterns of this cyprinid is still missing. Moreover, farming information about substrate availability and aggression is limited, and information about stress and malformations is missing so far. Further research taking this into account is needed to better assess and improve the welfare of C. molitorella in farms. 




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: lake: 240,000 m2 1 with unclear home range use.
  • FARM: cement tanks: 5 m2 (2.5 x 2 m) 2FRY: earthen ponds: 1,000-2,000 m2 3 4; hapas made of plankton net: 3 m2 (1.5 x 2 m) or 10.5 m2 (3.5 x 3 m) 2. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 100-1,000 m2 5, tanks: 1.4 m2 (1.2 x 1.2 m) 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: ➝  LARVAE and FRY.
  • FARM: earthen ponds: 200 m2 (20 x 10 m) 6, 400 m2 (18 x 22 m 7), 2,000-3,000 m2 4, 40,469 m2 8; concrete ponds: 8 m2 (4 x 2 m) 9.
  • LAB: does not apply.

ADULTS:

  • WILD➝ LARVAE and FRY.
  • FARM: ponds: 8,000 m2 10, 800 m2 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).
  • LAB: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: ➝  LARVAE and FRY.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS. Cemented breeding tanks: 6-10 m ∅ 4. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 20-30 m or 2,000-25,000 m2 5; storage tanks: 200 m2 (10 x 20 m), 450 m2 (15 x 30 m) 5; breeding tanks: 3.8 m2 (2.5 x 1.5 m), 8 m2 (4 x 2 m), 18.8 m2 (7.5 x 2.5 m), 2 m ∅ 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.



2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: semi-buoyant 11-12 13-12. Lake: median 5.8 m in the dry season, 6.2 m in the rainy season 1 with unclear depth range use.
  • FARM: floating 2. Hatching raceways: 0.8-1 m, current flow is maintained to keep eggs and LARVAE suspended in the water column 4.
  • LAB: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: lake: median 5.8 m in the dry season, 6.2 m in the rainy season 1 with unclear depth range use.
  • FARM: cement tanks: 0.6 m 2FRY: earthen ponds: 1.5-2 m 3 4; hapas made of plankton net: 0.8 or 1 m 2. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.5-1.2 m 5, tanks: 1.2 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILDBENTHOPELAGIC 7 14 15, dwelling on the bottom 4 1 8. 5-20 m 16-15. Lake: median 5.8 m in the dry season, 6.2 m in the rainy season 1 with unclear depth range use.
  • FARM: earthen ponds: 1.5-4 m 4 6 7 14 8; concrete ponds: 1.2 m 9.
  • LAB: does not apply.

ADULTS:

  • WILD JUVENILES.
  • FARM: ponds: 2 m 10. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 0.8-2 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD:  LARVAE and FRY.
  • FARM: cemented breeding tanks: ~2 m 4. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1.0-2.5 m or deeper depending on climate zone 5; storage tanks: 1.0-1.5 m 5; breeding tanks: 1 m 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well. 
  • LAB: does not apply.



3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

It is high for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 17-15 4.

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: 11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD 12, 16.9-30.1 °C 12, fresh water 12 15.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: 11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD 12 18 19 20 21 15, 10-35 °C 22-15 23 12 19, fresh water 12 18 19 20 21 15.
  • FARM: ponds: 21.8 °C, fresh water 14. For details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD:  JUVENILES.
  • FARM: ponds: 25 °C, fresh water 10. For details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: 11-14 h PHOTOPERIOD 12, 19-30.1 °C 12, fresh water 15. Migrate to upper reaches of major rivers to spawn 4.
  • FARM:  LARVAE and FRY.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY: does not apply.

JUVENILES: does not apply.

ADULTS: does not apply.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: ​mature at 2-4 years old 13-12 4. Spawn in floodplains 24, but also in the middle reaches of rivers  13-12 11-12, May-June/July 24 25-26 or in protracted spawning season March-August (April-July in the middle reaches of the river 11-12, March-August in the lower reaches of the river 13-12) with two cohorts hatching in February-June (peak in April) and in April-September (peak in July) depending on the region 12. Females spawn once per season 26. LARVAE abundance positively related to high precipitation 23 27.
  • FARM: mature at 2-4 years old 25-26 2. Sex ratio: 2 males:1 female 25-26 2 4. Spawning season considered to be May-August 2. Unable to spawn naturally in captivity 4 – spawning is successfully induced by hormone injection 25-26 2 28 and environmental stimuli like flowing water 4. No stripping 25-26. For carps in general, in storage tanks, spawners are kept separated by sex 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILDLARVAE: river: mean 0.003-0.02 IND/L 27.
  • FARM: cement tanks: 19 IND/L 2; earthen ponds: 100-1,000 IND/m2, with better growth at the lowest density 29-3, LARVAE: 400 IND/m2 25-3, FRY: 450-600 IND/m2 3 4. Hapas: FRY: 0.7 or 2.8 IND/L 2. For carps in general, earthen ponds: 1,000 IND/m2 for LARVAE in nursery ponds, 12.5-25 IND/m2 for FRY in breeding ponds 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: earthen ponds (before growout stage): 350-450 IND/m2 in monocultures 3 4, 100 IND/min polycultures when it is the major species 4; earthen ponds (growout stage): 1.5-2.5 IND/m2 in polycultures with other cyprinids and O. niloticus when it is one of the major species 4; earthen ponds and pens in shallow lakes (growout stage): 0.8-0.9 IND/m2 in polycultures with other cyprinids and O. niloticus when it is a secondary species 4. Ponds: 0.007 IND/L 9, 0.05-1 IND/m2 in polyculture with other carps or carps and Pelteobagrus fulvidraco of overall density of 0.1-5 IND/m2 7 6 8.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: monoculture 4.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: commonly in polyculture for ongrowing 4. No aggression reported in polyculture with Oreochromis niloticusAbramis brama, and other carps, except food competition with Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 4.
  • LAB: no aggression reported in polyculture with Cirrhinus mrigala, but competition for food and lower growth rate of C. molitorella 19.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no aggression reported in polyculture with Clarias gariepinus, Barbonymus gonionotus, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella 2 (for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS).
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for ADULTS to become SPAWNERS  ADULTS.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: river: transparency 0.5-1.4 m 12.
  • FARM: hatching jars or raceways 4, probably without substrate. Small hapas made of plankton net 2. For carps in general, double-walled hapa nets (e.g., mosquito netting and whole cloth) to protect from predators 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD Eggs.
  • FARM: LARVAE: incubation tanks 25-3, probably without substrate. For details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILDBENTHOPELAGIC 15, dwelling on the bottom 4. Prefer clear water 4. River: transparency 0.5-1.4 m 12.
  • FARM: for details of holding systems  S1 and S2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD JUVENILES.
  • FARM: turbid water due to a high density of suspended algae or suspended sediment 10. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD Eggs.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

LARVAE and FRY:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: for carps in general, malformations due to insufficient nutrition 5. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: no data found yet.
  • FARM: no data found yet.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: does not apply.

LARVAE and FRY: does not apply.

JUVENILES:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM: common slaughter method: commonly sold live or fresh 4, so probably asphyxia, although some is canned and processed into ready-to-eat food 4. For the related C. carpio, 85% are sold alive, of the 15% processed in plants 30, the common methods are a) asphyxia (followed by evisceration 30 or percussive killing 31), b) percussive stunning (followed by evisceration 30 32, gill cut or destruction of the heart 32), and c) electrical stunning (followed by evisceration 30 32, gill cut or destruction of the heart 32). Further research needed to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well. High-standard slaughter method: for C. carpio, electrical plus percussive stunning (followed by evisceration, gill cut or destruction of the heart) 32 or immersion in clove oil (followed by percussive killing 31). Further research needed for a specific protocol and to determine whether this applies to C. molitorella as well.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

ADULTS:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS:

  • WILD: does not apply.
  • FARM JUVENILES.
  • LAB: no data found yet.



Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 33, level 5 being fully domesticated.




Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes:

  • WILD: omnivorous 24 4 1 14 8, detritivorous 1 6 4 (LARVAE and FRY feed on zooplankton 4), ilyophagous 10.
  • FARM: as a major species in polycultures at growout stage: hardly any use of fish meal or other animal protein in the feed (<10%), fertilisation can reduce the quantity of feed needed by enhancing natural food availability 4; as a secondary species in polycultures at growout stage: no special feeding required 4. Food wastes mainly containing cereal or cereal and meat meal, with lower fish meal percentage (10%), can replace commercial feeds 7 14
  • LAB: no data found yet

*partly = <51% – mostly = 51-99% – completely = 100%




Glossary


ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
BENTHOPELAGIC = living and feeding near the bottom of a body of water, floating above the floor
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 = entire life cycle closed in captivity without wild inputs 33
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
IND = individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
SPAWNERS = adults during the spawning season; in farms: adults that are kept as broodstock
WILD = setting in the wild



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