Burbot

Lota lota

Lota lota (Burbot)
Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Gadiformes
        • Lotidae
          • Lota lota

Information


Author: Maria Filipa Castanheira
Version: 2.0 (2022-01-22) - Revision 2 (2022-07-20)

Cite

Reviewers: Pablo Arechavala-Lopez, Jenny Volstorf
Editor: Billo Heinzpeter Studer

Cite as: »Castanheira, Maria Filipa. 2022. Lota lota (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2017-06-07. Version 2.0 Revision 2. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Lota lota
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Lota lota is the only gadiform (cod-like) freshwater fish. L. lota populations are difficult to study due to their deep habitats and reproduction under ice. There is limited information about this species in the wild and under farming conditions. As L. lota lacks popularity in commercial fishing, many regions do not even consider management plans. Aquaculture could represent a solution to restore L. lota wild populations. In the recent years, it has become one of the promising candidates for diversification of freshwater aquaculture. Further research is needed on both natural behaviour and physiological effects of farming practices in order to provide recommendations for improving fish welfare.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAEWILD: no data found yetFARM: intensive conditions: tanks: 40 L 1; extensive conditions: ponds: 700 m2 1.

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yetFARM: mesocosm: 2 x 2 m 2. LAB: rectangular tanks: 0.8 m2 and 225 L 3

ADULTS: WILDno data found yetFARM: no data found yet. LAB:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILDno data found yetFARM: tanks: 1.5 x 2 m 4, 1 m3 5.




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: WILD: released in depths of 0.5-1.5 m 5. FARM: no data found yet.

LARVAE: WILD: ≥4.5 m 6. FARM: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: WILD: caught at 1-700 m 7 8FARM: no data found yet

ADULTS: WILD: usually 2-25 m 9 10. FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: <13.4 m 9. FARM: tanks: 0.5 m 4.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Resident 9 10.

All age classes: WILD: DEMERSAL, found at deep lake bottoms and in rivers with slow moving water 7 8 11. Some individuals exhibit pre-spawning migration from lakes to rivers with a maximum of 101 km upstream in 13 days 12 13. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is high for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: spawn November-March 8 11 14. FARM: simulated natural PHOTOPERIOD and temperature regime induces natural spawning 15 1 5. Hormonal stimulation to induce ovulation and spermiation 15 5 16




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: WILD and FARM: no data found yet. 

JUVENILES: WILD and FARMno data found yet. 

ADULTSWILD and FARMno data found yet. 

SPAWNERS: WILD: form spawning aggregations 8 17. FARMno data found yet




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: no data found yet. 

JUVENILES: no data found yet. 

ADULTS: no data found yet. 

SPAWNERS: no data found yet. 




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is high for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs and LARVAE: WILD: substrate serves as refuges 17. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1.

JUVENILES: WILD: preference for stony habitat with shelter 8 18 19 2 20 21. FARM: providing slight light intensity, shelter, and partly covered tanks are reported to improve welfare 3.

ADULTS:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: spawn in cobbles and stones substrate 17. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: no data found yet

JUVENILES: for stress and shelter/cover crit. 7.

ADULTS:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: no data found yet




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: malformations of skull in <5% of individuals 22, swim bladder in 10% 23. Frequency of malformed individuals increased with increasing temperatures (4 and 6 °C) 4.

JUVENILES: no data found yet

ADULTS: no data found yet




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common and high-standard slaughter method: no data found yet.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 24, level 5 being fully domesticated.




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes: WILD: carnivorous 11 25. FARM: currently, there are no specific commercial feeds 26. No data found yet on replacement of fish meal and fish oil.




Glossary


LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
WILD = setting in the wild
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
DEMERSAL = living and feeding on or near the bottom of a body of water, mostly benthopelagic, some benthic
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 = entire life cycle closed in captivity with wild inputs 24



Bibliography


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