Cherry salmon

Oncorhynchus masou

Oncorhynchus masou (Cherry salmon)
Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Salmoniformes
        • Salmonidae
          • Oncorhynchus masou
Distribution
Distribution map: Oncorhynchus masou (Cherry salmon)

Information


Author: Maria Filipa Castanheira
Version: 2.0 (2020-12-11) - Revision 1 (2022-07-20)

Cite

Reviewers: Pablo Arechavala-Lopez, Jenny Volstorf
Editor: Billo Heinzpeter Studer

Cite as: »Castanheira, Maria Filipa. 2022. Oncorhynchus masou (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2017-03-08. Version 2.0 Revision 1. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Oncorhynchus masou
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

The production of Oncorhynchus masou has emerged over the past decades mainly to supplement wild populations and increase fisheries. The low FishEthoScore is mainly due to home range needs, high levels of aggression, needs of substrate, stress under farming conditions, and high levels of deformations.

Despite the availability of many studies about the life history and environmental conditions of Salmonids in general there is limited information on present farming conditions of Oncorhynchus masou. Further research is needed on both natural behaviour and physiological effects of farming practices in order to provide recommendations for improving fish welfare. In addition, the impact of releasing captive individuals in the dynamic of the wild populations needs clarifications in order to use the restocking programmes more appropriately and effectively. 




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

ALEVINS and FRY: WILD: salmonids move short distances from the redd 1 2. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to O. masou as well. FARM: no data found yet.

PARR and SMOLTS: WILD: usually 7-8 m 3 4, <18.5 m 5 6. FARM: net pens: 12 x 21 m 7.

ADULTS➝ SMOLTS.

SPAWNERS: WILD: usually 18.5-2,000 m 6 8, <12.5 km 9. FARM: no data found yet 10.                                       




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs, ALEVINS and FRY: WILD: redds at 12-32 cm depth 11. FARM: no data found yet

PARR: WILD: usually 19-80 cm 12 3 6, down to 100 cm 5. FARM: net-pens: 1.8 m 7.

SMOLTS: WILD: down to 29 cm 6FARM: net-pens: 1.8 m 7.

ADULTS SMOLTS

SPAWNERSWILD: down to 32 cm 6 11FARMno data found yet.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a high amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

ANADROMOUS 13 14 15 16 17.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: females build redds 8 18 16. FARM: no data found yet.




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

FRY: WILD: schools 19

PARR and SMOLTS: WILD: group densities of 2-34 individuals/100 m2 in September and 0-21 individuals/100 m2 in November 4

SMOLTS FRY.

ADULTS: WILD: salmonids live in schools during migration 20 2 21. Further reseach needed to determine whether this applies to Oncorhynchus masou as well.

SPAWNERSWILDno data found yet.

For all age classes FARM: no data found yet.




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

ALEVINS and FRY: WILD: salmonids are territorial and aggressive 22 23 24. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to Oncorhynchus masou as well. FARM: no data found yet on aggression behaviour under farming conditions.

PARR: WILD: territorial, aggressive 8 and establish dominant-subordinate relationships 5 3 12. FARM: aggressive both wild and farmed 25 8.

SMOLTSWILD: aggressive 8. FARM: aggressive 25 .

ADULTSWILD ➝ SMOLTSFARMno data found yet.

SPAWNERS: WILD: males are territorial and aggressive 18FARM: no data found yet.




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs, ALEVINS and FRY: WILD: successful incubation and emergence dependent on gravel characteristics. FARM: for details of holding systems  crit.1 and 2.

PARR and SMOLTS: WILD: during autumn and winter, use habitats with shelter as refuges 19 4FARM: for details of holding systems  crit.1 and 2.

ADULTS  PARR and SMOLTS.

SPAWNERS: WILD: female uses substrate to build redd 18 16.​ FARM​: for details of holding systems  crit.1 and 2.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: higher cortisol levels due to repeated handling 26. Salmonids are prone to stress under farming conditions 27 28 29 30. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to Oncorhynchus masou as well.

PARR and SMOLTS: water flow conditions affect immune system 31. Salmonids are prone to stress under farming conditions 27 28 29 30. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to Oncorhynchus masou as well.

ADULTS PARR and SMOLTS.

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

ALEVINS, FRY and PARR: malformations of skull, spine, cardiac muscle fibres and atrophy of pancreatic cell due to vitamin A deficiency in the diet 32.

SMOLTS: differences in the structure of the head skeleton 33.

ADULTS SMOLTS

For all age classes, no data found yet on frequency of malformations.

 




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common slaughter method: for the related O. kisutch, anaesthesia with high CO2 or iced water 34, then bled by cutting gill arches and immersing in iced water 34 35. High-standard slaughter method: for the related Salmon salar 36 37 and O. mykiss, humane slaughter protocol available 38 39. Further research needed to determine whether these specific parameters need to be adjusted to O. masou.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 40, level 5 being fully domesticated.




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes: WILD: carnivorous 41. FARM: no data found yet on replacement of fish meal and fish oil by non-forage fishery components.

 




Glossary


ALEVINS = larvae until the end of yolk sac absorption, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
WILD = setting in the wild
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
PARR = juvenile stage in rivers, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
SMOLTS = juvenile stage migrating to the sea, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
ANADROMOUS = migrating from the sea into fresh water to spawn
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 4 = entire life cycle closed in captivity without wild inputs 40



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