Pangasius

Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Pangasius)
Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Siluriformes
        • Pangasiidae
          • Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

Information


Author: Maria Filipa Castanheira
Version: 2.0 (2021-12-22)

Cite

Reviewers: Pablo Arechavala-Lopez, Jenny Volstorf
Editor: Billo Heinzpeter Studer

Cite as: »Castanheira, Maria Filipa. 2021. Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2017-06-10. Version 2.0. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Pangasianodon hypophthalmus
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Over the last ten years the Pangasianodon hypophthalmus has emerged as a new aquaculture whitefish product on the world market. The rapid and dramatic increase in production of the species was essentially due to the development of hormone spawning techniques which have led to mass production capabilities. The few findings available show that P. hypophthalmus tolerate high intensive culture conditions in floating cages, ponds or net pens and reach 1 kg harvest size of within 8-10 months. Nowadays, the semi-intensive conditions represent 56.7%, and the intensive conditions represent 36.7% of total cages. Further research is needed under all 10 reported criteria on both natural behaviour and physiological effects of farming practices in order to provide recommendations for improving fish welfare.    




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: WILDno data found yetFARM: hatcheries: 0.2-15 ha, ponds: 0.05-10 ha 1.

JUVENILES: WILD: 0.2-15 km 2. FARM: extensive conditions: <288 m3 3; semi-intensive conditions: 288-720 m3 3; intensive conditions: >720 m3 3.

ADULTS JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: spawning ponds: 0.02-3.0 ha 1.




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs and LARVAE: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: WILDno data found yet. FARM: intensive conditions: 3.6-4 m 3.

ADULTSWILDno data found yet. FARM:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: spawning ponds: 2-2.5 m 1.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 4.

LARVAE: WILD: drift downstream with the water current 3FARM: fresh water 3For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

JUVENILES: WILD: seasonal variation in the distribution: move upstream October-February and return to the main stream June-August 3. FARM: fresh water 3. Stressed by salinities >10 g/L 5For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

ADULTSWILD:  JUVENILES. FARM:  LARVAE.

SPAWNERS: WILD: spawn upstream at the beginning of the rainy season (June-August) 3. FARM:  LARVAE.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: no data found yet. FARM: hormonal injection to induce ovulation and spermiation, eggs and milt are manually extracted by stripping 6 3 1.




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: 400-500 IND/m2 till yolk sac absorption 4.

FRY: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: at 0.3-1 g: 400-500 IND/m2, at 14-20 g: 150-200 IND/m2 4.

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: ponds: 40-60 IND/m2 (yields reach 250-300 tonnes/ha/crop), net cages: 100-150 IND/m3 (yields reach 100-120 kg/m3/crop), net pens: 40-60 IND/m2 (yields reach 300-350 tonnes/ha/crop) 4.

ADULTSWILD: no data found yet. FARM:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: 2-3 kg/m2 1.




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: FARM: cannibalistic 7 8 9LAB: cannibalistic 10.

JUVENILES: FARM: no data found yet.

ADULTS: FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: FARM: no data found yet.




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs: WILD: stick to the vegetation or other types of substrate 3 4. FARM: for details of holding systems   crit. 1 and 2.

LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: Eggs.

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: Eggs.

ADULTSWILD: no data found yet. FARM: Eggs.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: Eggs.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: stressed by transport 11. For stress and salinity crit. 3.

ADULTS: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs and LARVAE: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: no data found yet.

ADULTS: no data found yet.




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common slaughter method: asphyxia 12 4. High-standard slaughter method: no data found yet.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 13, level 5 being fully domesticated. Cultured since 1960 3.




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

WILD: omnivorous 14 4. FARM: for JUVENILES, fish meal and fish oil may be mostly* replaced 15 16 17, but no data found yet for LARVAE and ADULTS.

*partly = <51% – mostly = 51-99% – completely = 100%




Glossary


LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
WILD = setting in the wild
FARM = setting in farm environment
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
IND = individuals
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
LAB = setting in laboratory environment
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 = entire life cycle closed in captivity with wild inputs 13



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