Turbot

Scophthalmus maximus

Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)
Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Pleuronectiformes
        • Scophthalmidae
          • Scophthalmus maximus
Distribution
Distribution map: Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)

Information


Author: Maria Filipa Castanheira
Version: 2.0 (2022-01-22) - Revision 1 (2022-06-23)

Cite

Reviewer: Jenny Volstorf
Editor: Billo Heinzpeter Studer

Cite as: »Castanheira, Maria Filipa. 2022. Scophthalmus maximus (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2017-06-07. Version 2.0 Revision 1. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Scophthalmus maximus
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Scophthalmus maximus is a left-eyed flatfish of the family Scophtalmidae, a DEMERSAL predator, mainly in the area from the Black and Mediterranean Sea to the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea. S. maximus is a relatively scarce “gourmet” fish and is highly prized in the market. S. maximus farming started in the 1970s in the United Kingdom and subsequently established in France, Spain, and Portugal. In the beginning, the production was restricted by a limited juvenile supply, but technological developments since 2007 have led to an expansion in production. Only few findings are available on both natural behaviour and physiological effects of farming practices. They clearly demonstrate the importance of sandy substrate and low stocking densities to improve fish welfare.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a high amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: hatcheries: semi-intensive conditions: 50 m3; intensive conditions: 20-30 m3 1. Pre-fattening period: circular tanks: 10-30 m1.

JUVENILES: WILD: <20 km 2 3. FARM: tanks: 25-100 m3 1; submersible cages: 200-550 m2 surface range and 12-16.5 diameter 4.

ADULTS JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: tanks: 20-40 m3 1.




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs and LARVAE: WILD: 0.2-1 m 5 6FARMno data found yet.

JUVENILES: WILD: usually 40-60 m 7 8. FARM: generally 3-7 m depth 9.

ADULTS➝ JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: spawn at 10-40 m 10 11. FARM: no data found yet.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

OCEANODROMOUS 5.

LARVAE: WILD: driven by currents towards the coasts 5FARM: saltwater 5. For details of holding systems  crit. 1.

JUVENILES: WILD: resident 2 12FARM: saltwater 5. Higher growth under 12L:12D cycle than under 20L:4D 13. For details of holding systems  crit. 1 and 2.

ADULTS: JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD: migrations from deeper to shallower areas to spawn 2FARM: LARVAE.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: spawn April-June 14 15. Periodic spawner, releasing eggs 10-12 times at 3-6 days intervals 16. FARM: eggs and milt are manually extracted by stripping 16 11.




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: hatcheries: semi-intensive conditions: 2-5 IND/L; intensive conditions: 15-20 IND/L 1.

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: tanks: 1.4-6.6 kg/m2 16, 10-30 kg/m2 17; net cages: 30-120 IND/m18. Low stocking densities are reported to improve growth and welfare 19 20 21.

ADULTS: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: no data found yet

JUVENILES: feed restriction promotes competition at high stocking density 22 23 19 24.

ADULTS:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Eggs and LARVAE: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1.

JUVENILES: WILD: mainly on sandy bottoms 3 25 26. FARM: prefer sandy substrate 25. Usually rearing conditions are without sand on the bottom 27. For details of holding systems crit. 1 and 2.

ADULTS JUVENILES

SPAWNERS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: no data found yet

JUVENILES: stressed by handling 28 29 and sudden salinity 30 and temperature changes 31. For stress and a) PHOTOPERIOD crit. 3, b) stocking density crit. 5.

ADULTS JUVENILES

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: 6% malformed and 28% malpigmented 32

ADULTS JUVENILES.




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a medium amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common slaughter method: asphyxia 33 34. High-standard slaughter method: indications that automated percussion and electrical stunning is effective 35 36. Further research needed to confirm for farming conditions.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 37, level 5 being fully domesticated. 




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

WILD: carnivorous 5. FARM: for JUVENILES and ADULTS, fish meal and fish oil may be partlyreplaced by non-forage fishery components 38 39 40 41. For LARVAE and SPAWNERS, no data found yet on replacement of fish meal and fish oil.

*partly = <51% – mostly = 51-99% – completely = 100%




Glossary


DEMERSAL = living and feeding on or near the bottom of a body of water, mostly benthopelagic, some benthic
LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
WILD = setting in the wild
FARM = setting in farming environment or under conditions simulating farming environment in terms of size of facility or number of individuals
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
OCEANODROMOUS = living and migrating in the sea
12L = 12 h light
12D = 12 h dark
20L = 20 h light
4D = 4 h dark
IND = individuals
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 = entire life cycle closed in captivity with wild inputs 37



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