Lake Garda carpione

Salmo carpio

Salmo carpio (Lake Garda carpione)
Taxonomy
    • Osteichthyes
      • Salmoniformes
        • Salmonidae
          • Salmo carpio

Information


Author: María J. Cabrera-Álvarez
Version: 2.0 (2022-01-22)

Cite

Reviewers: Pablo Arechavala-Lopez, Jenny Volstorf
Editor: Jenny Volstorf

Cite as: »Cabrera-Álvarez, María J.. 2022. Salmo carpio (Farm: Short Profile). In: FishEthoBase, ed. Fish Ethology and Welfare Group. World Wide Web electronic publication. First published 2021-07-05. Version 2.0. https://fishethobase.net.«





FishEthoScore/farm

Salmo carpio
LiPoCe
Criteria
Home range
Depth range
Migration
Reproduction
Aggregation
Aggression
Substrate
Stress
Malformations
Slaughter


Condensed assessment of the species' likelihood and potential for good fish welfare in aquaculture, based on ethological findings for 10 crucial criteria.

Li = Likelihood that the individuals of the species experience good welfare under minimal farming conditions
Po = Potential of the individuals of the species to experience good welfare under high-standard farming conditions
Ce = Certainty of our findings in Likelihood and Potential

FishEthoScore = Sum of criteria scoring "High" (max. 10)

Legend

High
Medium
Low
Unclear
No findings



General remarks

Salmo carpio is an Italian salmonid species restricted to Lake Garda in northern Italy, and it is currently critically endangered. Its life expectancy is 5 years. S. carpio was introduced in several Italian lakes and in New Zealand without success. An Italian Institute started a farming programme to increase the natural population and to sell them to the public. There is limited information about the behaviour and home range of S. carpio in the wild, as well as limited publicly available information about its farming conditions.




1  Home range

Many species traverse in a limited horizontal space (even if just for a certain period of time per year); the home range may be described as a species' understanding of its environment (i.e., its cognitive map) for the most important resources it needs access to. What is the probability of providing the species' whole home range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: fibreglass tanks: 4 m2 (2x2 m) for FRY 1 and FINGERLINGS 1.

JUVENILES: WILDno data found yet. FARM: tanks and raceways: total area ~5,000 m2 2.

ADULTS: WILDno data found yet. and FARM:  JUVENILES.

SPAWNERS: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.




2  Depth range

Given the availability of resources (food, shelter) or the need to avoid predators, species spend their time within a certain depth range. What is the probability of providing the species' whole depth range in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: WILD and FARM: no data found yet.

ADULTS: WILD: PELAGIC, reaching depths of 100-200 m 1, caught at 25-30 m 3 and 80 m 1. FARM: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: WILD: spawn at 50-200 m in lake beds 4 5 1. FARM: no data found yet.




3  Migration

Some species undergo seasonal changes of environments for different purposes (feeding, spawning, etc.) and with them, environmental parameters (photoperiod, temperature, salinity) may change, too. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the migrating or habitat-changing behaviour of the species?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

POTAMODROMOUS 3 4 1.

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: based on distribution (Lake Garda), estimated 9-15 h PHOTOPERIOD, fresh water; 8-22 °C 1. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1.

JUVENILES:  LARVAE and FRY.

ADULTS LARVAE and FRY.

SPAWNERS: WILD: based on distribution (Lake Garda), estimated 9-15 h PHOTOPERIOD, fresh water. Migration between spawning and foraging areas 4: for reproduction to the north in the winter and centre and south in the summer 3 1. FARM: no data found yet.




4  Reproduction

A species reproduces at a certain age, season, and sex ratio and possibly involving courtship rituals. What is the probability of the species reproducing naturally in captivity without manipulation?

It is low for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

WILD: sexual maturity: males: 3 years, females: 4 years 3 4, although sexually active a year earlier 3. 2 spawning seasons: long one (Dec-Feb) and/or short one (July-Aug) 6 3 4, no correlation between moment of birth and breeding season 7. FARM: sexual maturity: males: 16-18 months; females: 24 months 4. Can spawn twice/year 4; gametes are manually or surgically taken from the abdominal cavity of males and females after anaesthesia 1.




5  Aggregation

Species differ in the way they co-exist with conspecifics or other species from being solitary to aggregating unstructured, casually roaming in shoals or closely coordinating in schools of varying densities. What is the probability of providing farming conditions that are compatible with the aggregation behaviour of the species?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: schooling 8. FARM: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: WILD: schooling 8. FARM: no data found yet.

ADULTS: WILD: schooling 8. FARM: gregarious 4 9. For salmonids in general, 25 kg/m3 10. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to S. carpio as well.

SPAWNERS: WILD: schooling 8. Gregarious during seasonal migrations between spawning and foraging areas 4. FARM: gregarious 4.




6  Aggression

There is a range of adverse reactions in species, spanning from being relatively indifferent towards others to defending valuable resources (e.g., food, territory, mates) to actively attacking opponents. What is the probability of the species being non-aggressive and non-territorial in captivity?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: no data found yet.

ADULTS: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.




7  Substrate

Depending on where in the water column the species lives, it differs in interacting with or relying on various substrates for feeding or covering purposes (e.g., plants, rocks and stones, sand and mud). What is the probability of providing the species' substrate and shelter needs in captivity?

There are unclear findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: WILD: no data found yet. FARM: for details of holding systems crit. 1.

JUVENILES: WILD: no data found yet. FARM:  LARVAE and FRY.

ADULTS: WILD: no data found yet. FARM:  LARVAE and FRY.

SPAWNERS: WILD: two spawning areas: submerged alluvial fans and coastal cliffs 11. Lake beds with abundant oxygen, gravel, and cobbles 4 1 without mud 4. FARM: no data found yet.




8  Stress

Farming involves subjecting the species to diverse procedures (e.g., handling, air exposure, short-term confinement, short-term crowding, transport), sudden parameter changes or repeated disturbances (e.g., husbandry, size-grading). What is the probability of the species not being stressed?

There are no findings for minimal and high-standard farming conditions.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: no data found yet.

JUVENILES: no data found yet.

ADULTS: no data found yet.

SPAWNERS: no data found yet.




9  Malformations

Deformities that – in contrast to diseases – are commonly irreversible may indicate sub-optimal rearing conditions (e.g., mechanical stress during hatching and rearing, environmental factors unless mentioned in crit. 3, aquatic pollutants, nutritional deficiencies) or a general incompatibility of the species with being farmed. What is the probability of the species being malformed rarely?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

LARVAE and FRY: tail malformations and swim bladder problems in 10%, possibly due to higher incubation temperature of 11 °C 1.

JUVENILES: no data found yet.

ADULTS: no data found yet.




10  Slaughter

The cornerstone for a humane treatment is that slaughter a) immediately follows stunning (i.e., while the individual is unconscious), b) happens according to a clear and reproducible set of instructions verified under farming conditions, and c) avoids pain, suffering, and distress. What is the probability of the species being slaughtered according to a humane slaughter protocol?

It is low for minimal farming conditions. It is medium for high-standard farming conditions. Our conclusion is based on a low amount of evidence.

Likelihood
Potential
Certainty

Common slaughter method: for O. kisutch, anaesthetised with high CO2 or iced water 12, then bled by cutting gill arches and immersing in iced water 12 13; for O. tshawytscha, blow to the head, then bled by cutting gill arches 14. High-standard slaughter method: for O. mykiss, electrical stunning before killing by chilling or bleeding 15 16 17 18; for S. salar, a protocol for electrical and percussive stunning and killing by bleeding is available 19 20 21 22; for S. trutta, electrical stunning followed by ice-water slurry 23; for S. alpinus alpinus, electrical stunning 16. Further research needed to determine whether this applies to S. carpio as well.




11  Side note: Domestication

Teletchea and Fontaine introduced 5 domestication levels illustrating how far species are from having their life cycle closed in captivity without wild input, how long they have been reared in captivity, and whether breeding programmes are in place. What is the species’ domestication level?

DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 24, level 5 being fully domesticated.




12  Side note: Forage fish in the feed

450-1,000 milliard wild-caught fishes end up being processed into fish meal and fish oil each year which contributes to overfishing and represents enormous suffering. There is a broad range of feeding types within species reared in captivity. To what degree may fish meal and fish oil based on forage fish be replaced by non-forage fishery components (e.g., poultry blood meal) or sustainable sources (e.g., soybean cake)?

All age classes: WILD: planktivorous 3 25-4 1ADULTS also piscivorous 3. FARM: FRY fed with water collected from the lake at 70-80 m 1, no data found yet on replacement studies for all age classes.




Glossary


LARVAE = hatching to mouth opening, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
FRY = larvae from external feeding on, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
WILD = setting in the wild
FARM = setting in farm environment
FINGERLINGS = fry with fully developed scales and working fins, the size of a finger; for details Findings 10.1 Ontogentic development
JUVENILES = fully developed but immature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
ADULTS = mature individuals, for details Findings 10.1 Ontogenetic development
SPAWNERS = adults that are kept as broodstock
PELAGIC = living independent of bottom and shore of a body of water
POTAMODROMOUS = migrating within fresh water
PHOTOPERIOD = duration of daylight
DOMESTICATION LEVEL 3 = entire life cycle closed in captivity with wild inputs 24



Bibliography


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